Chat with us, powered by LiveChat CAP 5: Training Principles Note: Please delete the narratives below when submitting your CAP. Include numerals 1-8 to indicat - School Writers

CAP 5: Training Principles Note: Please delete the narratives below when submitting your CAP. Include numerals 1-8 to indicat


CAP 5: Training Principles

Note: Please delete the narratives below when submitting your CAP. Include numerals 1-8 to indicate where each new answer begins, and write in short answer/paragraph style as appropriate.

Sharon is a starter on her high school volleyball team. She’s a strong server, regularly serving aces, so her coach usually puts her into the rotation right before the team needs to score a few points off some good serves.  Sharon has always loved sports; she picks them up quickly, and it is easy for her to gain strength and aerobic capacity after working out in the right ways for just a few practices.

Even though she’s a starter, Sharon has always had trouble with digs; she just doesn’t react quickly enough to spikes from the other team. Her coach noticed this and told her to practice by bumping the ball up high on the gym wall and then returning it quickly to the wall again. Sharon did this for 20 min every practice, but she couldn’t figure out how it was going to help her respond to spikes that came in at different angles and faster speeds. 

While Sharon worked on bumps and returns, the rest of the team did short sprints across the gym with periodic rests to improve their speed and endurance. About midway through the season, Sharon noticed that she felt winded after even short runs and dives toward the ball, and she felt as if she had less power in her legs. On her own, Sharon began doing interval training after practice. She would sprint a few times across the gym, recover for a few seconds, and then sprint again. Soon, she was able to run faster and take fewer rests, and she didn’t get nearly as winded during her games. 

After a few weeks of doing her self-directed interval training every day, Sharon felt as if she wasn’t improving anymore. She seemed to have plateaued. Was she working too hard? Not hard enough? Sharon wasn’t sure what she should do next. As playoffs approached, Sharon was just plain worn out. Her team’s practices and rigorous game schedule combined with her own everyday workout had been grueling. Sharon wondered why that hadn’t been enough. Why, when they were now entering the most important part of the season and had a chance to make it past regionals, was Sharon not at her best physical condition of the entire season?

1. When Sharon began her own interval training to improve her speed and endurance, which principle did she implement? 

2. There is no mention of the gradual cycling of specificity, intensity, and volume of training in this case study. Therefore, Sharon does not achieve her peak level of fitness by the end of the season, when every game counts. Which principle is Sharon’s coach apparently not implementing? 

3. Sharon’s body adapts quickly to training. She shows great improvement after participating in a given program; she is a "responder." This is an example of which principle? 

4. Sharon goes all-out every practice and never gives her body a break. By the end of the season, she is fatigued and not in her best physical condition.  This is an example of which principle?

5. Sharon’s coach did not understand this principle well enough to construct a good practice drill for reacting to spikes. Because a spiked ball will come in faster and at different angles than the ball Sharon is bumping to the wall, the drill Sharon was told to do will not improve her ability to respond to spikes. What principle does this reflect?

6. Make one suggestion that would help Sharon react to a spiked ball better.

7. Use table 9.2 to help you answer question “a.”

a. Sharon’s coach decided to implement a training program for the whole year. Sharon, an intermediate lifter, has a bench press 1-RM of 95 pounds and a squat 1-RM of 150 pounds. Identify the recommended values (%1RM and absolute weight) for strength development, muscle hypertrophy, muscular power, and muscular endurance for these two exercises using the tables below (fill in each blank cell).







Example: Bench Press: 50-60% 1RM; 47.5 – 57lb



















b. List three other types of resistance training that the coach should incorporate and a suggestion of how to incorporate each to help the girls reach peak fitness.

8. In approximately 500 words, explain the physiologic mechanisms that increase a) muscular strength and b) muscular hypertrophy. Are there any changes that should be made in the training program you are using for this course to achieve greater increases in strength and hypertrophy? Explain your answers using textbook and peer-reviewed research (Hint: the Supplemental Reading list attached to CAP 5 in Blackboard contains numerous articles that should help here!)

Principles of Exercise Training

Chapter 9

CHAPTER 9 Overview


General principles of training

Resistance training programs

Anaerobic and aerobic power training programs

Terminology: Muscular Strength

Maximal force that a muscle or muscle group can generate

Static strength

Dynamic strength (varying by speed and joint angle)

1-repetition maximum (1RM): maximal weight that can be lifted with a single effort

Start with proper warm-up.

Add weight until only one repetition can be performed.


Terminology: Muscular Power

Rate of performing work

Explosive aspect of strength

Power = force × (distance/time)

More important than strength for many activities

Field tests not very specific to power

Typically measured with electronic devices

Figure 9.1

Terminology: Muscular Endurance

Capacity to perform repeated muscle contractions or sustain a single contraction over time

Number of repetitions at given % 1RM

Increased through gains in muscle strength and changes in local metabolic and cardiovascular function


Table 9.1

Terminology: Aerobic Power

Rate of energy release by oxygen-dependent metabolic processes

Maximal aerobic power: maximal capacity for aerobic resynthesis of ATP

Synonyms: aerobic capacity, maximal O2 uptake, V•O2max

Primary limitation: cardiovascular system

Testable in lab or estimable from variety of field tests


Terminology: Anaerobic Power

Rate of energy release by oxygen-independent metabolic processes

Maximal anaerobic power: maximal capacity of anaerobic systems to produce ATP

Also known as anaerobic capacity

Maximal accumulated O2 deficit test

Critical power test

Wingate anaerobic test

General Principles of Training: Principle of Individuality

Not all athletes are created equal.

Genetics affects performance.

Variations exist in cell growth rates, metabolism, and cardiorespiratory and neuroendocrine regulation.

Individual variation explains high versus low responders.

General Principles of Training: Principle of Specificity

Exercise adaptations are specific to mode and intensity of training.

Training program must stress the most relevant physiological systems for a given sport.

Training adaptations are highly specific to type of activity, training volume, and intensity.

General Principles of Training: Principle of Reversibility

Use it or lose it.

Training improves strength and endurance.

Detraining reverses gains.

General Principles of Training: Principle of Progressive Overload

Must increase demands on body to make further improvements.

Muscle overload: Muscles must be loaded beyond normal loading for improvement.

Progressive training: As strength , resistance or repetitions must  to further  strength.

General Principles of Training: Principle of Variation

Also called principle of periodization

Systematically changes one or more variables to keep training challenging.

Intensity, volume, and/or mode

–  volume,  intensity

–  volume,  intensity

Macrocycles are composed of mesocycles.

Resistance Training: Strength, Hypertrophy, and Power

Should involve concentric (CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric contractions.

CON strength is maximized by inclusion of ECC.

ECC benefits action-specific movements.

Exercise order matters.

Large muscle groups before small, multijoint before single, high intensity before low

Rest periods are based on experience.

Novice, intermediate lifters: 2 to 3 min between sets

Advanced lifters: 1 to 2 minutes between sets

Resistance Training: Static-Contraction Resistance

Muscle force without muscle shortening

Also called isometric training

Early promise

But later evidence did not support early findings.

Isometric training is nonetheless still popular.

Ideal for immobilized rehab situations

Resistance Training: Free Weights Versus Machines

Free weights (constant resistance)

Tax muscle extremes but not midrange.

Recruit supporting and stabilizing muscles.

Are better for advanced weightlifters.


May involve variable resistance.

Are safer, easier, more stable, better for novices.

Limit recruitment to targeted muscle groups.

Figure 9.2

Resistance Training: Dynamic Eccentric Training

Emphasis on ECC phase of contraction

In this phase, muscle’s ability to resist force is greater than with CON training.

Theoretically produces  strength gains versus CON.

Early ECC versus CON research equivocal

More support from recent studies

ECC + CON workouts maximize strength gains.

ECC is important for muscle hypertrophy.

Resistance Training: Variable-Resistance Training

Resistance  in weakest ranges of motion,  in strongest ranges.

Muscle works against higher percentage of its capacity at each point in range of motion.

Serves as the basis for several popular machines.

Figure 9.3

Resistance Training: Isokinetic Training

Movement at a constant speed

Angular velocity can range from 0°/s to 300°/s.

Strong force is opposed by more resistance.

Weak force is opposed by less resistance.

Resistance from electronics, air, or hydraulics

Theoretically, maximal contraction at all points in range of motion


Resistance Training: Plyometrics

Also known as stretch–shortening cycle exercise

Uses stretch reflex to recruit motor units.

Stores energy during ECC, releases during CON.

Example: Perform deep squat to jump to deep squat.

Proposed to bridge gap between speed and strength training

Figure 9.4

Resistance Training: Electrical Stimulation

Current passed across muscle or motor nerve

Is ideal for recovery from injury or surgery.

Reduces strength loss during immobilization.

Restores strength and size during rehab.

No evidence of further supplemental gains in healthy, training athletes

Resistance Training: Core Training

Core: trunk muscles around spine and viscera

Abdominal muscles

Gluteal muscles, hip girdle

Paraspinal, other accessory muscles

Yoga, Pilates, tai chi, physioball

Proximal stability aided by distal mobility


Resistance Training: Core Training (continued)

May decrease likelihood of injury.

Increases muscle spindle sensitivity.

Permits greater state of readiness for joint loading.

Protects body from injury.

Core musculature contains mostly type I fibers, responds well to multiple sets and high reps.

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training

Train sport-specific metabolic systems.

Design programs along a continuum from short sprints to long distances.

Sprints: ATP-PCr (anaerobic)

Long sprint, middle distance: glycolytic (anaerobic)

Long distance: oxidative (aerobic)

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval Training

Repeated bouts of high/moderate intensity interspersed with rest or reduced intensity

More total exercise performed by breaking into bouts

Improved glucose control, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function

Sets, reps, time, distance, frequency, interval, rest


Set 1: 6 x 400 m at 75 s (90 s slow jog)

Set 2: 6 x 800 m at 180 s (200 s jog-walk)



Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval Training (continued)

Is appropriate for all sports and activities.

For given sport, first choose mode, then adjust.

Rate of exercise interval

Distance of exercise interval

Number of repetitions and sets per training session

Duration of rest and active recovery

Type of activity during active recovery

Frequency of training per week

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity

Determined by duration/distance or % HRmax

Duration and distance more practical

One method: Use best time at set distance and adjust duration by desired intensity.

Intensity depends on fitness, sets, reps, and so on.

ATP-PCr system training: ~ 90% to 98% intensity

Anaerobic glycolytic training: ~ 80% to 95% intensity

Aerobic oxidative training: ~ 75% to 85% intensity



Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Exercise Interval Intensity (continued)

% HRmax a better index of physiological stress

HRmax determined by lab test, all-out run

ATP-PCr training: ~ 90% to 100% HRmax

Anaerobic glycolytic training: ~ 85% to 100% HRmax

Aerobic oxidative training: ~ 70% to 90% HRmax

Heart rate monitors helpful for recording HR for duration of workout

Figure 9.5

Figure 9.6

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Distance of the Interval

Determined by requirements of activity

Sprint training: 30 to 200 m (even 400 m)

Distance training: 400 to 1,500+ m

Repetitions and Sets per Session

Largely sport specific

Short, intense intervals  more repetitions and sets

Longer intervals  fewer repetitions and sets

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Duration of Rest Interval

Dependent on how rapidly athlete recovers

Based on HR recovery (fitness and age dependent)

<30 years: HR should drop to 130 to 150 beats/min.

>30 years: Subtract 1 beat for every year over 30.

For active recovery between sets, HR <120 beats/min

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Activity During Rest Interval

Exercise intensity   recovery intensity 

With better fitness,  intensity or  rest duration

Land training: slow or rapid walk or jog

Swimming: slow swimming or total rest

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Frequency of Training

Dependent on purpose of interval training

World-class runner: 5 to 7 times per week

Swimmers: interval training every workout

Team sports: 2 to 4 times per week

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Group Exercise Training

Variety of options for cardiovascular, strength, and flexibility training

Equivalent health benefits

 HDL, lean muscle mass

 fasting glucose, LDL, triglycerides, fat mass

Improved satisfaction, enjoyment, motivation


Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Continuous Training

Training without intervals

Targeting oxidative, glycolytic systems

High or low intensity

High intensity near race (85% to 95% HRmax)

Low intensity: long, slow distance training


Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Long, Slow Distance (LSD) Training

Training at 60% to 80% HRmax (50% to 75% V•O2max)

Popular, safe

Near race pace

Main objective: distance, not speed

15 to 30 mi/day, 100 to 200 mi/week

Less cardiorespiratory stress

Greater joint and muscle stress (overuse injuries)

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Fartlek Training

Pace varied from sprint to jog at discretion

Continuous training + interval elements

Used primarily by distance runners

Fun, engaging, variable

Supplement for other types of training

Anaerobic and Aerobic Power Training: Interval-Circuit Training

Combined interval and circuit training

Circuit length 3,000 to 10,000 m

Interval stations every 400 to 1,600 m

Stations involving strength, flexibility, or endurance

Jogging, running, or sprinting between stations

Often in park or countryside

High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

Can dramatically improve aerobic capacity in untrained people.

Four to six 30 s sprints followed by 3 min rest

Benefits for people with busy schedules

Trained people can benefit by replacing 10% to 15% of training volume with HIIT.


Adaptations to Resistance Training

Chapter 10


CHAPTER 10 Overview

Resistance training and gains in muscular fitness

Mechanisms of gains in muscle strength

Interaction between resistance training and diet

Resistance training for special populations

Resistance Training: Introduction

Substantial strength gains via neuromuscular changes

Important for overall fitness and health

Critical for athletic training programs

Resistance Training: Gains in Muscular Fitness

After 3 to 6 months of resistance training

25% to 100% strength gain

Better force production

Ability to produce true maximal movement

Similar strength gains as percent of initial strength

But greater absolute gains for young men than for young women, older men, or children

Due to incredible muscle plasticity

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain

Hypertrophy versus atrophy

–  muscle size   muscle strength

–  muscle size   muscle strength

But association more complex than that

Sources of strength gains

–  muscle size

Altered neural control

Figure 10.1a

Figure 10.1b

Figure 10.1c

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Neural Control

Strength gain cannot occur without neural adaptations via plasticity.

Strength gain can occur without hypertrophy.

Strength is a property of the motor system, not just of muscle.

Essential elements include motor unit recruitment, stimulation frequency, and other neural factors.

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Motor Unit Recruitment

Motor units normally recruited asynchronously

Synchronous recruitment  strength gains

Facilitates contraction.

May produce more forceful contraction.

Improves rate of force development.

– Improves capability to exert steady forces.

Resistance training  synchronous recruitment


Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Motor Unit Recruitment (continued)

Strength gains may also result from greater motor unit recruitment.

–  neural drive during maximal contraction

–  frequency of neural discharge (rate coding)

–  inhibitory impulses

Likely that a combination of improved motor unit synchronization and motor unit recruitment leads to strength gains.

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Motor Unit Rate Coding

Limited evidence suggests that rate coding increases with resistance training, especially rapid-movement, ballistic-type training.

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Autogenic Inhibition

Normal intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms

Example: Golgi tendon organs

Inhibit muscle contraction if tendon tension too high.

Prevent damage to bones and tendons.

Inhibitory impulses  by training

Muscle can generate more force.

May also explain superhuman feats of strength.

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Other Neural Factors

Coactivation of agonists, antagonists

Normally antagonists oppose agonist force

Reduced coactivation may  strength gain

Morphology of neuromuscular junction

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Muscle Hypertrophy

Hypertrophy: increase in muscle size

Transient hypertrophy (after exercise bout)

Due to edema formation from plasma fluid

Gone within hours

Chronic hypertrophy (long term)

Structural change in muscle

Fiber hypertrophy, fiber hyperplasia, or both

Figure 10.2a

Photos courtesy of Dr. Michael Deschene’s laboratory.


Figure 10.2b

Photos courtesy of Dr. Michael Deschene’s laboratory.


Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Chronic Muscle Hypertrophy

Maximized by high-velocity eccentric training, which disrupts sarcomere Z-lines (protein remodeling).

Concentric training may limit muscle hypertrophy, strength gains.

Stimulated by intensities as low as 30% 1RM and as high as 90%.

Caused by both high-rep (low-load) and low-rep (high-load) training.


Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Hypertrophy

More myofibrils

More actin, myosin filaments

More sarcoplasm

More connective tissue

Resistance training   protein synthesis

Muscle protein content always changing

During exercise: synthesis , degradation 

After exercise: synthesis , degradation 

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Hormones and Hypertrophy

Fiber hypertrophy facilitated by testosterone

Natural anabolic steroid hormone

Synthetic anabolic steroids  large increases in muscle mass

Growth hormone (GH)

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)

Elevated post exercise levels not required for anabolism and strength

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Hyperplasia


Intense strength training produces fiber splitting.

Each half grows to size of parent fiber.

Chickens, mice, rats

Intense strength training produces only fiber hypertrophy.

But difference may be due to training regimen.



Figure 10.3

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Hyperplasia (continued)


Most hypertrophy is due to fiber hypertrophy.

Fiber hyperplasia also contributes.

Fiber hypertrophy versus fiber hyperplasia may depend on resistance training intensity or load.

Higher intensity causes (type II) fiber hypertrophy.

Fiber hyperplasia may occur only in certain individuals under certain conditions.


Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Hyperplasia (continued)

Can occur through fiber splitting.

Also occurs through satellite cells.

Myogenic stem cells involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

Activated by stretch, injury

After activation: proliferate, migrate, fuse

Figure 10.4

Adapted by permission from T.J. Hawke and D.J. Garry, “Myogenic Satellite Cells: Physiology to Molecular Biology,” Journal of Applied Physiology 91 (2001): 534-551.


Animation 10.4

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Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Neural Activation and Hypertrophy

Short-term  in muscle strength

Substantial  in 1RM

Due to  voluntary neural activation

Neural factors critical in first 8 to 10 weeks

Long-term  in muscle strength

Associated with significant fiber hypertrophy

Net  protein synthesis requiring time to occur

Hypertrophy major factor after first 10 weeks

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Atrophy and Inactivity

Reduction or cessation of activity  major change in muscle structure and function

Limb immobilization studies

Detraining studies

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Immobilization

Major changes after 6 h

Lack of muscle use  reduced protein synthesis.

Initiates process of muscle atrophy.

First week: strength loss of 3%-4% per day

–  size (atrophy)

–  neuromuscular activity

(Reversible) effects on type I and II fibers

Cross-sectional area , cell contents degenerate.

Type I is affected more than type II.

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Detraining

Leads to  in 1RM.

Lost strength can be regained (~6 weeks).

New 1RM matches or exceeds old 1RM.

Once training goal met, maintenance resistance program prevents detraining.

Maintain strength and 1RM.

Reduce training frequency.

Figure 10.5

Adapted by permission from R.S. Staron et al., “Strength and Skeletal Muscle Adaptations in Heavy-Resistance-Trained Women After Detraining and Retraining,” Journal of Applied Physiology 70 (1991): 631-640.


Figure 10.6

Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Type Alterations

Training regimen may not outright change fiber type, but . . .

Type II fibers more oxidative with aerobic training

Type I fibers more anaerobic with anaerobic training

Fiber type conversion is possible under certain conditions.


Chronic low-frequency stimulation

High-intensity treadmill or resistance training


Mechanisms of Muscle Strength Gain: Fiber Type Alterations (continued)

Type IIx  type IIa transition common

20-week heavy resistance training program:

Static strength, cross-sectional area 

Percent type IIx , percent type IIa 

Other studies: type I  type IIa with high-intensity resistance work + short-interval speed work


Interaction Between Resistance Training and Diet

Resistance training increases protein synthesis.

Consume 20 to 25 g protein after resistance exercise for muscle growth.

Consume 1.6 to 1.7 g protein per kg body weight per day to increase muscle mass.

Small doses (20 g) every 2 to 3 hours are recommended for protein synthesis.

Larger doses (20-25 g) recommended immediately after resistance training.

Mechanism of Protein Synthesis with Resistance Training and Protein Intake

Controlled by mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin)

Integrates input from insulin, growth factors, amino acids.

Dictates transcription of mRNA.

Synthesizes ribosomes.

Stimulated by insulin


Amino acids converted into protein via mRNA

Figure 10.7

Dickinson, J.M., Volpi, E., & Rasmussen, B.B. (2013). Exercise and nutrition to target protein synthesis impairments in aging skeletal muscle. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, 41, 216-223.


Animation 10.7

Video 10.1

When you are in the normal view of the PowerPoint slides, you should right-click on the image and then choose “Open hyperlink” to play the video. In the slide show view, you will simply click on the image to play the video. You must have an Internet connection in order to link to the streaming video.

In this video, Luc von Loon on the role of protein in adaptations to resistance training.


Resistance Training for Special Populations: Age

Children and adolescents

Myth: Resistance training is unsafe due to growth plate, hormonal changes.

Truth: It is safe with proper safeguards.

Children can gain both strength and muscle mass.

Elderly persons

Helps restore age-related loss of muscle mass.

Improves quality of life and health.

Helps prevent falls.


Strength Training in Older Adults

Increases in strength dependent primarily on neural adaptations

No difference across sex or race

Same response as in younger but blunted

Decreased mTOR signaling response

Smaller increases in myofibrillar protein and muscle size

25-50 g protein necessary to stimulate muscle protein synthesis

Resistance Training for Sport

Training is not worth it beyond the basic strength, power, and endurance needs of the chosen sport.

Training costs valuable time.

Training results should be tested with sport-specific performance metrics.

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