Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Description This week our textbook takes us through the prescriptive expectations for formal, academic writing and source integ - School Writers

Description This week our textbook takes us through the prescriptive expectations for formal, academic writing and source integ


This week our textbook takes us through the prescriptive expectations for formal, academic writing and source integration. Beyond technically mastering the obligate standards of MLA Formatting, the question emerges, “what do the rules of source formatting tell us about what we value in writing?” Timeliness? Notoriety and Prestige? Collaboration? Evidence? Everything’s an Argument chapters 20 through 22 will help us better answer this question. As satirical relief from these rules, Kyle Stedman will reinforce the most common pitfalls of source integration through humor and learning models that come to represent “how NOT to use sources.” As you craft your CRR this week, think about how these chapters reinforce or challenge your field’s source integration habits (i.e. perhaps you are used to a different citation style like APA, Chicago, or ASA among others) and more broadly, how the ability to integrate sources with integrity cultivate your credibility as a writer.


After Reading the assigned texts, your response should be approached in one of the following ways:

  1. Reading with/Reading Against: Read with each text, summarizing the key ideas. Then, “talk back” to the ideas, locating potential gaps or how these ideas might be reconsidered or implemented in various settings.
  2. Impact on your own writing: Think of what impact the ideas or concepts in a particular article/chapter/es.SAY may have on the teaching of writing or on writing more generally–in and out of your discipline. Explain as clearly as possible how this impact might occur. You might also talk about the problems and/or possibilities this concept or idea creates for the teacher/student/practitioner. You should reflect, at least a little, on how your own experience(s) in classrooms and courses rub against the concept(s) or idea(s) to which you are responding.
  3. Synthesis: Looking at the texts you read for the week, attempt to synthesize a concept or idea that you noticed moving through the texts. Your goal should be to highlight the idea or concept as the writers understand it and then explain how you see these concepts connecting or disconnecting in a productive way. You might also use these syntheses in future projects.

You may want to include key definitions and terms to help you on future projects. Every discussion post must include a question you want the class to address that goes beyond reading comprehension (i.e. we want conversations started not merely yes/no or shallow questions). The expectation is that you engage deeply with the assigned readings and draw explicit connections between your CRR and the readings.


  • Type or paste your reading response directly into the submission text area
  • You do not need to include an MLA Works Cited entry, but do follow MLA format to cite any sentences with direct examples or quotations you reference from the reading.
  • The initial post (worth 5 points) is due Tuesday by 11:59 p.m.
  • Your responses to your writing group members (worth 5 points) are due Thursday by 11:59 p.m.

Post Requirements

  • Original Title of Discussion post, "Walker WK1 DQ Answer" is not original. Try and think outside of the box and pull something unique and individual from our weekly assigned readings
  • Initial Response must be 400 words in length


A Note about the Cover

Is everything really an argument? Seeing the images on the cover of this book might make you wonder. The “Free Speech Zone” sign, for example, instantly calls to mind the debates across the United States about the limits of free expression, especially on college campuses. The ominous-looking hand coming out of the laptop suggests the ease with which hackers obtain personal data. Does the image of teens playing on cell phones in the back seat of a car argue for or against the ways that technology is shaping how we are communicating with one another? The polar bear on a shrinking ice floe reminds us of the scientific fact of climate change but also invites a discussion of how powerful visuals can sway our opinions and beliefs. As for the “100% vegan” sticker, what’s your impression? Is it a proud proclamation of


one’s identity or values? A straightforward fact about a food’s origins? A sharp commentary on the influence of advertising on the food industry? What’s your take?





Eighth Edition

Everything’s an Argument with Readings Andrea A. Lunsford


John J. Ruszkiewicz


Keith Walters



For Bedford/St. Martin’s

Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Learning Humanities: Edwin Hill Executive Program Director for English: Leasa Burton Senior Program Manager: John E. Sullivan III Executive Marketing Manager: Joy Fisher Williams Director of Content Development, Humanities: Jane Knetzger Senior Developmental Editor: Rachel Goldberg Associate Editor: Lexi DeConti Editorial Assistant: William Hwang Senior Content Project Manager: Ryan Sullivan Senior Workflow Project Manager: Jennifer Wetzel Production Coordinator: Brianna Lester Media Project Manager: Jodi Isman Media Editor: Julia Domenicucci Editorial Services: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Composition: Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Cartographer: Mapping Specialists, Ltd. Text Permissions Manager: Kalina Ingham Text Permissions Editor: Arthur Johnson, Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Photo Permissions Editor: Angela Boehler Photo Researcher: Krystyna Borgen, Lumina Datamatics, Inc. Director of Design, Content Management: Diana Blume Text Design: Claire Seng-Niemoeller, Anna Palchik, and Graphic World, Inc. Cover Design: William Boardman Cover Images: (laptop) fStop Images/Epoxydude/Getty Images; (polar


bear) dagsjo/Getty Images; (vegan label) Good_Studio/Getty Images; (free speech sign) Imfoto/Shutterstock; (kids with cell phones) Hero Images/Getty Images

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013, 2010 by Bedford/St. Martin’s.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be permitted by law or expressly permitted in writing by the Publisher.

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For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116

ISBN-13: 978-1-319-21159-2(mobi)

Acknowledgments Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages 793–94, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover.


Preface When we began work on this text in 1996 (the first edition came out in 1998), we couldn’t have anticipated all the events of the next two tumultuous decades, or all the changes to public and private discourse, or the current deeply divided state of our nation. But we have tried hard, over these decades, to track such changes and the ways rhetoric and argument have evolved and responded to them.

Certainly, we recognized the increasingly important role digital culture plays in all our lives, and so with each new edition we have included more on the technologies of communication, particularly those associated with social media; and we early on recognized that, like rhetoric itself, social media can be used for good or for ill, to bring people together or to separate them.

We have also carefully tracked the forms that arguments take today, from cartoons and graphic narratives to blogs and other postings to multimodal projects of almost every conceivable kind. While argument has always surrounded us, today it does so in an amazing array of genres and forms, including aural and visual components that strengthen and amplify arguments.

The sheer proliferation of information (not to mention misinformation, disinformation, and outright lies) that bombards all writers led us to reaffirm our commitment to studying and teaching style, since (as Richard Lanham and others argue) in the age of information overload, style is the tool writers possess to try to capture and keep the attention of audiences. Attention to style reveals other changes, such as the


increasing use of informal registers and conversational styles even in academic arguments.

Perhaps most important, though, a look back over the last twenty-two years reaffirms the crucial role that rhetoric can and should play in personal, work, and school lives. At its best, rhetoric is the art, theory, and practice of ethical communication, needed more sorely today than perhaps ever before. Everything’s an Argument with Readings presents this view of rhetoric and illustrates it with a fair and wide range of perspectives and views, which we hope will inspire student writers to think of themselves as rhetors, as Quintilian’s “good person, speaking well.”

Key Features Two books in one, neatly linked. Up front is a brief guide to Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument; common types of arguments; presenting arguments; and researching arguments. In the back is a thematically organized anthology of readings in a wide range of genres. Handy cross-references in the margins allow students to move easily from the argument chapters to specific examples in the readings and from the readings to appropriate rhetorical instruction.

Short, relatable excerpts weave in the debates that rage around us. From #metoo tweets and protest posters to essays and scholarly writing, boldfaced examples illustrate the arguments happening in politics, economics, journalism, and media, with brief student-friendly analyses.

Five thematic readings chapters that encourage students to explore


complex arguments. Readings on “How Does Popular Culture Stereotype You?,” “Has the Internet Destroyed Privacy?,” and “How Free Should Campus Speech Be?” demand that students consider the many sides of contemporary issues across the political spectrum, going beyond a simple pro/con stance.

A real-world, full-color design that builds students’ understanding of visual rhetoric. Presenting readings in the style of their original publications helps students recognize and think about the effect that design and visuals have on written and multimodal arguments.

New to This Edition A new section on rhetorical listening in Chapter 1. The very first chapter of the eighth edition now emphasizes the importance of listening rhetorically and respectfully, encouraging readers to move beyond “echo chambers” and build bridges among all viewpoints.

Eight new full-length models in the guide provide engaging, topical arguments of fact, definition, evaluation, cause and effect, proposals, and rhetorical analysis. Legal scholar Stephen L. Carter offers a Toulmin analysis of whether racial epithets should be considered free speech, while New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof presents an op-ed in defense of public wilderness.

Five new annotated student essays address topics students care about, from millennials’ love of food to breaking a social media addiction.

Thirty-one engaging new readings on hot-button issues such as free speech, food, language, privacy, and stereotypes. Selections


represent a range of genres and span the full gamut of social and political views, including:

excerpts from a recent Gallup poll showing what college students think about First Amendment issues visual arguments and a scholarly essay supporting and critiquing the concept of racial microaggressions best-selling essayist Roxane Gay on the language we use to describe sexual violence an Economist blog post acknowledging that sport shooting can be, well, fun an argument against veganism . . . written by a vegan

A new introduction in the instructor’s notes. Focusing on the teaching of argument, this new introduction gives experienced and first-time instructors a strong pedagogical foundation. Sample syllabi for both semester and quarter courses provide help for pacing all types of courses.

We’re all in. As always. Bedford/St. Martin’s is as passionately committed to the discipline of English as ever, working hard to provide support and services that make it easier for you to teach your course your way.

Find community support at the Bedford/St. Martin’s English Community (, where you can follow our Bits blog for new teaching ideas, download titles from our professional resource series, and review projects in the pipeline.


Choose curriculum solutions that offer flexible custom options, combining our carefully developed print and digital resources, acclaimed works from Macmillan’s trade imprints, and your own course or program materials to provide the exact resources your students need. Our approach to customization makes it possible to create a customized project uniquely suited for your students and, based on your enrollment size, return money to your department and raise your institutional profile with a high-impact author visit through the Macmillan Author Program (“MAP”).

Rely on outstanding service from your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative and editorial team. Contact us or visit to learn more about any of the options below.

LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings: Where Students Learn LaunchPad provides engaging content and new ways to get the most out of your book. Get an interactive e-book combined with assessment tools in a fully customizable course space; then assign and mix our resources with yours.

Reading comprehension quizzes, to help you quickly gauge your students’ understanding of the assigned reading. Interactive exercises and tutorials for reading, writing, and research. Diagnostics provide opportunities to assess areas for improvement and assign additional exercises based on students’ needs. Visual reports show performance by topic, class, and student as well as improvement over time.


Pre-built units—including readings, videos, quizzes, and more— are easy to adapt and assign by adding your own materials and mixing them with our high-quality multimedia content and ready- made assessment options, such as LearningCurve adaptive quizzing and Exercise Central. Use LaunchPad on its own or integrate it with your school’s learning management system so that your class is always on the same page.

LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings can be purchased on its own or packaged with the print book at a significant discount. An activation code is required. To order LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings with the print book, use ISBN 978-1-319-25363-9. For more information, go to

Choose from Alternative Formats of Everything’s an Argument with Readings Bedford/St. Martin’s offers a range of formats. Choose what works best for you and your students:

Paperback brief edition To order the paperback edition of Everything’s an Argument, use ISBN 978-1-319-05627-8. Popular e-book formats For details of our e-book partners, visit

Select Value Packages Add value to your text by packaging a Bedford/St. Martin’s resource, such as Writer’s Help 2.0, with Everything’s an Argument with


Readings at a significant discount. Contact your sales representative for more information.

Writer’s Help 2.0 is a powerful online writing resource that helps students find answers, whether they are searching for writing advice on their own or as part of an assignment.

Smart search. Built on research with more than 1,600 student writers, the smart search in Writer’s Help 2.0 provides reliable results even when students use novice terms, such as flow and unstuck. Trusted content from our best-selling handbooks. Andrea Lunsford’s user-friendly tone ensures that students have clear advice and examples for all of their writing questions. Diagnostics that help establish a baseline for instruction. Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for improvement and to help students plan a course of study. Use visual reports to track performance by topic, class, and student as well as improvement over time. Adaptive exercises that engage students. Writer’s Help 2.0 includes LearningCurve, game-like online quizzing that adapts to what students already know and helps them focus on what they need to learn.

Student access is packaged with Everything’s an Argument with Readings at a significant discount. Order ISBN 978-1-319-25623-4 for Writer’s Help 2.0, Lunsford Version, to ensure your students have easy access to online writing support. Students who rent or buy a used book can purchase access and instructors may request free access at


Instructor Resources You have a lot to do in your course. We want to make it easy for you to find the support you need—and to get it quickly.

Instructor’s Notes for Everything’s an Argument with Readings is available as a PDF that can be downloaded from Visit the instructor resources tab for Everything’s an Argument with Readings. In addition to chapter overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual offers an introduction about teaching the argument course, sample syllabi, correlations to the Council of Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement, and potential answers to the “Respond” questions in the book.

Acknowledgments We owe a debt of gratitude to many people for making Everything’s an Argument with Readings possible. Our first thanks must go to the thousands of people we have taught in our writing courses over nearly four decades, particularly students at the Ohio State University, Stanford University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Portland State University. Almost every chapter in this book has been informed by a classroom encounter with a student whose shrewd observation or perceptive question sent an ambitious lesson plan spiraling to the ground. (Anyone who has tried to teach claims and warrants on the fly to skeptical first-year writers will surely appreciate why we have qualified our claims in the Toulmin chapter so carefully.) But students have also provided the motive for writing this book. More than ever, they need to know how to read and write arguments effectively if they


are to secure a place in a world growing ever smaller and more rhetorically challenging.

We are deeply grateful to the editors at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have contributed their formidable talents to this book. In particular, we want to thank the ingenious and efficient Rachel Goldberg for guiding us so patiently and confidently—helping us locate just the right items whenever we needed fresh examples and images and gracefully recasting passage after passage to satisfy permissions mandates. Senior content project manager Ryan Sullivan was relentlessly upbeat and kind in all his communications, making the ever-more-complex stages of production almost a pleasure. We also appreciate the extensive support and help of Lexi DeConti, who kept us attuned to examples and readings that might appeal to students today. We are similarly grateful to senior program manager John Sullivan, whose support was unfailing; Kalina Ingham, Arthur Johnson, and Tom Wilcox, for text permissions; Angela Boehler and Krystyna Borgen, for art permissions; William Boardman, for our cover design; Bridget Leahy, copyeditor; and William Hwang, editorial assistant. All of you made editing the eighth edition feel fresh and creative.

We’d also like to thank the astute instructors who reviewed the seventh edition: Brigitte Anderson, University of Pikeville; Samantha Battrick, Truman State University; Kathryn Bennett, Old Dominion University; Jeanne Bohannon, Kennesaw State University; Rebecca Cepek, Duquesne University; Laura Dumin, University of Central Oklahoma; Tim Engles, Eastern Illinois University; Karen Feldman, Seminole State College of Florida; Africa Fine, Palm Beach State College;


Darius Frasure, Mountain View College; Erin Gallagher, Washington State University; Ben Graydon, Daytona State College; Joseph Hernandez, Mt. San Jacinto College; Julie Moore-Felux, Northwest Vista College; Laurie Murray, Anderson University; Kolawole Olaiya, Anderson University; Leslie Rapparlie, University of Colorado; Thomas Reynolds, Northwestern State University; Loreen Smith, Isothermal Community College; Benjamin Syn, University of Colorado; Gina Szabady, Lane Community College; Amy Walton, Iowa State University; and Miriam Young, Truman State University.

Thanks, too, to Sherrie Weller of Loyola Chicago University and Valerie Duff-Stroutmann of Newbury College, who updated the instructor’s notes for this eighth edition with a new introduction, new model syllabi, new points for discussion, and new classroom activities. We hope this resource will be useful as instructors build their courses. Finally, we are grateful to the students whose fine argumentative essays or materials appear in our chapters: Cameron Hauer, Kate Beispel, Jenny Kim, Laura Tarrant, Natasha Rodriguez, Caleb Wong, Juliana Chang, George Chidiac, and Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner. We hope that Everything’s an Argument with Readings responds to what students and instructors have said they want and need.

Andrea A. Lunsford

John J. Ruszkiewicz

Keith Walters

Correlation to Council of Writing Program


Administrators’ (WPA) Outcomes Everything’s an Argument with Readings works with the Council of Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement for first-year composition courses (last updated 2014).

2014 WPA Outcomes

Support in Everything’s an Argument with Readings, 8e

Rhetorical Knowledge

Learn and use key rhetorical concepts through analyzing and composing a variety of texts.

Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), establishes the central elements of the rhetorical situation and encourages rhetorical listening.

Chapter 6, “Rhetorical Analysis” (pp. 97–132), further develops these concepts and teaches students how to analyze a rhetorical analysis and compose their own.

Each chapter offers dozens of written, visual, and multimodal texts to analyze, in both the guide portion and the thematic reader.

Gain experience reading and composing in several genres to understand how genre conventions shape and are shaped by readers’ and writers’

Everything’s an Argument with Readings provides engaging readings across genres, from academic essays and newspaper editorials to tweets and infographics. “Respond” boxes throughout each chapter (e.g., pp. 56–57) invite students to think critically about the material. For more genre variety, Everything’s an Argument with Readings also contains a five-chapter thematic reader with additional multimodal genres, including an art installation, Web articles, scholarly essays, and political cartoons.


practices and purposes.

Each chapter on a specific type of argument features project ideas (e.g., p. 186), giving students detailed prompts to write their own arguments of fact, arguments of definition, evaluations, causal arguments, and proposals.

Develop facility in responding to a variety of situations and contexts, calling for purposeful shifts in voice, tone, level of formality, design, medium, and/or structure.

Chapter 13, “Style in Arguments” (pp. 321–45), addresses word choice, tone, sentence structure, punctuation, and figurative language, with engaging examples of each.

The “Cultural Contexts for Argument” boxes throughout the text (e.g., p. 163) address how people from other cultures might respond to different styles or structures of argument. This feature offers suggestions on how to think about argument in an unfamiliar cultural context.

Understand and use a variety of technologies to address a range of audiences.

Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), addresses how new media has transformed the array of choices for making arguments and reaching audiences. This chapter teaches how to analyze multimodal arguments as well as how to create them through Web sites, videos, wikis, blogs, social media, memes, posters, and comics.

Match the capacities of different environments (e.g., print & electronic) to varying rhetorical situations.

Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62), discusses the power of visual rhetoric and how students can use visuals in their own work.

Chapter 15, “Presenting Arguments” (pp. 363–80), includes material on incorporating various media into presentations and Webcasts.

Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), analyzes the evolving landscape of argument across media platforms.


Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), covers the conventions of academic arguments.

Critical Thinking, Reading, and Composing

Use composing and reading for inquiry, learning, thinking, and communicating in various rhetorical contexts.

Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), features a section called “Why Listen to Arguments Rhetorically and Respectfully” (pp. 7–8). It teaches students to listen openly and constructively and calls attention to the need to escape “echo chambers,” respectfully consider all viewpoints, and find common ground.

Throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings, students are invited to delve deeper into current issues in the world around them, considering the various arguments presented in tweets, newspapers, scholarly papers, court rulings, and even bumper stickers. Everything’s an Argument with Readings guides students in asking critical questions about these contexts and learning how to respond to and create their own compositions. Chapters dedicated to central types of argument explain how students might best approach each writing situation. The chapters close with a guide to writing arguments of that type:

Chapter 8, “Arguments of Fact” (pp. 164–96)

Chapter 9, “Arguments of Definition” (pp. 197–223)

Chapter 10, “Evaluations” (pp. 224–54)

Chapter 11, “Causal Arguments” (pp. 255–85)

Chapter 12, “Proposals” (pp. 286–318)


Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402)

Read a diverse range of texts, attending especially to relationships between assertion and evidence, to patterns of organization, to interplay between verbal and nonverbal elements, and how these features function for different audiences and situations.

Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63), examines making claims and using evidence to support those claims. It delves into the structure of Rogerian and Toulmin arguments, showing how different argument types work for different writing situations.

Each Guide to Writing features sections on “Formulating a Claim” and “Thinking about Organization” (e.g., pp. 212 and 214), emphasizing the use of evidence and the structure of the argument.

Locate and evaluate primary and secondary research materials, including journal articles, essays, books, databases, and informal Internet sources.

Chapter 18, “Finding Evidence” (pp. 438–53), covers locating evidence from print, electronic, and field research sources.

Chapter 19, “Evaluating Sources” (pp. 454–63), addresses how to assess those sources effectively.

Use strategies —  such as interpretation,

Chapter 20, “Using Sources,” provides detailed explanations of summary, paraphrase, and quotation and when to use each approach (pp. 467–73). The


synthesis, response, critique, and design/redesign  — to compose texts that integrate the writer’s ideas with those from appropriate sources.

chapter discusses framing with introductory phrases and signal verbs, and it presents multiple ways to connect source material to a student’s own ideas — by establishing a context, introducing a term or concept, developing a claim, highlighting differences, and avoiding “patchwriting” (pp. 480–82).

Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp. 484–93), highlights the importance of acknowledging another writer’s work.

Chapter 22, “Documenting Sources” (pp. 494–532), concludes the research section of the book with a discussion of MLA and APA documentation, including a wide range of citation models in both formats.


Develop a writing project through multiple drafts.

Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), stresses the importance of working through multiple drafts of a project, using revision and peer feedback to improve the document.

Develop flexible strategies for reading, drafting, reviewing, collaboration, revising, rewriting, rereading, and editing.

Writing is a fundamental focus of Everything’s an Argument with Readings, and students learn to critique their own work and the work of others in almost every part of the book. Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains step-by-step advice on drafting, researching, and organizing, as well as peer review questions about the claim being made, the evidence provided for the claim, and the organization and style of the essay.

The Guide to Writing also asks students to review their spelling, punctuation, mechanics, documentation, and format.


Use composing processes and tools as a means to discover and reconsider ideas.

Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63), provides a clear explanation for how to construct an argument and support it effectively, and it includes a brief annotated model from a classic text.

The “Developing an Academic Argument” section (pp. 411–18) in Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), guides students through the specific process of developing a paper in an academic setting, from selecting a topic and exploring it in depth to entering into the conversation around the chosen topic. Two annotated examples of academic arguments are provided at the end of the chapter.

Experience the collaborative and social aspects of writing processes.

Many “Respond” questions have students work in pairs or groups to analyze rhetorical situations, arguments, or appeals. See p. 36, for instance.

In Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp. 484–93), students learn the importance of giving credit, getting permission to use the materials of others, citing sources appropriately, and acknowledging collaboration with their peers.

Learn to give and act on productive feedback to works in progress.

Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains a “Getting and Giving Response: Questions for Peer Review” section (e.g., pp. 183–85) tailored to that argument type. These questions address the claim being made, the evidence provided for the claim, and the organization and style of the essay.

Adapt composing processes for a variety of technologies and modalities.

Awareness of technology runs throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings, beginning in the first chapter with an exploration of arguments made via Twitter. A particular focus on multimodal arguments is made in Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62),


which covers how effective images can be and instructs students on incorporating them to achieve specific rhetorical purposes, and in Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), which focuses on how technology offers new platforms and opportunities for composition, as well as some new pitfalls to avoid. These chapters provide students with tools for creating their own multimodal compositions.

Reflect on the development of composing practices and how those practices influence their work.

Everything’s an Argument with …


Annoying Ways People Use Sources by Kyle D. Stedman

This essay is a chapter in Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume 2, a peer-reviewed open textbook series for

the writing classroom.

Download the full volume and individual chapters from: • Writing Spaces: • Parlor Press: • WAC Clearinghouse:

Print versions of the volume are available for purchase directly from Parlor Press and through oth

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