Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Employees who are highly engaged are committed to their work and see themselves as helping build a cathedral. Disengaged em - School Writers

Employees who are highly engaged are committed to their work and see themselves as helping build a cathedral.  Disengaged em

Employees who are highly engaged are committed to their work and see themselves as helping “build a cathedral.”  Disengaged employees have essentially checked out—they are merely “laying bricks” for a paycheck, not building a cathedral.  According to the Gallup report of 2013, only about 30% of the American workforce was “engaged,” and international data showed essentially the same results.  In 2019, Gallup found that engagement had risen somewhat since 2013.  (Both reports are attached in PDF format.)  With this in mind, address these questions:

  1. What is the impact of “engaged” versus “disengaged” employees on a company’s profits? For the purposes of this assignment, treat “engaged” as if it means the same thing as “inwardly committed to the good of the business.”  (You can ignore whether or not they participate in company bowling or softball leagues.) Why do you believe this?  
  2. Using Lewin’s 3-Stage Model, how would you re-engage disengaged employees at every level in the organization?  What conditions need to be in place in order to accomplish this?  How would you make sure that their engagement results in a measurable increase in the productive effort? (See Lessons 7 and 8)
  3. How would you use Drucker’s Management by Objectives, combined with Lewin’s 3-Stage Model, to secure the commitment of all employees, at every level of an organization (all the way to the bottom)?  (See Lesson 1)  
  4. What can leaders do to preserve this commitment once it is attained? Is there a specific style of leadership that you believe would best serve this purpose?  Why?  How is EQ related to this style?

Requirements: 

  • 7-9 pages long, not counting the title page and references. 
  • Use Times New Roman 12-pt. font, double-spaced.   
  • It needs to be formatted in proper APA style.  (Among other things, that means it should be divided into sections, and the section headings should be in bold font, left flush.)   
  • It requires a minimum of at least five credible sources for your references. 
  • Acceptable/credible sources include: Academic journals and books, industry journals, the class textbook, the lectures, and sources cited in the lectures. You may use credible business website sources in addition to these but avoid Wikipedia and “shortcuts” such as Mindtools. Wikipedia and Mindtools are not considered valid academic sources.
  • Don't just summarize the materials you got from your research.  
  • Don't just repeat someone's conclusion as a "fact" and leave it at that. 
  • Explain why you believe it to be true–or not true. For example, you can use theoretical arguments, or you can use examples from your personal work experience, or you can build your own examples, which, of course, must be based on realistic and clear assumptions. 
  • Reference textbook: Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2017). Essentials of Organizational Behavior (14th Edition). Pearson Education (US). Chapter7, 9, 12, and 17. The summary slides can be found in the attachment folder as well. 

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fourteenth Edition

Chapter 9

Foundations of Group Behavior

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After studying this chapter you should be able to:

Distinguish between the different types of groups.

Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development.

Show how role requirements change in different situations.

Demonstrate how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior.

Show how status and size differences affect group performance.

Describe how issues of cohesiveness and diversity can be integrated for group effectiveness.

Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.

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Groups and Group Identity

Group: Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives

Formal: Defined by the organization’s structure

Informal: Neither formally structured nor organizationally determined

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Groups are defined as two or more individuals who come together to achieve a set goal. There are two main types of groups. The first is a formal group, where the organization establishes the group with defined work tasks and outcomes. The second group is an informal group that is not part of the organizational structure. They are often established in reaction to a need for social interaction and form naturally. Informal groups can have a significant influence on behavior and performance.

3

Social Identity

Social identity theory

Perspective that considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups

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Positive shared experiences enhance our bonds with our groups. Social identity theory explores our tendency to personally invest in the accomplishments of a group.

4

Ingroups and Outgroups

Ingroup favoritism

Occurs when we see members of our group as better than other people and people not in our group as all the same

Outgroup

The inverse of an ingroup

Can mean anyone outside the group, but usually it is an identified other group

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Ingroup favoritism occurs when we see members of our group as being better than other people and people not in our group as being all the same. Research shows that people with low-openness and/or low agreeableness are more susceptible to ingroup favoritism. The opposite of an ingroup is an outgroup.

Animosity may exist between ingroups and outgroups, especially in the area of religion.

5

Punctuated Equilibrium Model for Temporary Groups

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Temporary groups follow a punctuated equilibrium model. The first meeting sets the group’s direction, after which a period of inertia sets in until about half the group’s allotted time is used up. At that point, a transition initiates major changes, followed by a second period of inertia. The group’s last meeting is characterized by a much higher level of activity.

6

Group Property 1: Roles

Role: The set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit

Role perception – our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation

Role expectations – how others believe you should act in a given situation

Role conflict – conflict experienced when multiple roles are incompatible

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Work groups have properties, including roles, norms, status, size, and cohesiveness, that shape the behavior of members. These properties can help explain and predict behavior within the group and the performance of the group itself.

Roles are the expected behavior individuals will take on in a group such as the leader or the task master. Each role is assigned a certain identity that explains expected attitudes and behaviors that correspond with the role identity. Each individual has their own point of view of how they are supposed to act in the context of the group; this is called role perception. Role expectations look at how others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role conflict occurs when the expected behaviors don’t match up with the behaviors being exhibited.

7

Group Property 2: Norms

Norms:

Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members

Norms and emotions

Norms and conformity

Norms and behavior

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Norms are standards of behavior that are acceptable by group members. Research shows that norms dictate the experience of emotions for individuals and for groups – so people grow to interpret their shared emotions in the same way.

Groups can place strong pressures on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviors to match the standards of the group. Solomon Asch and others have researched this pressure to conform as shown in the next slide.

The Hawthorne studies, which will be discussed later, showed the influence of norms on employee behavior.

8

Norms and Conformity

Reference groups: Groups in which a person is aware of other members, defines self as a member, believes group members to be significant

Individuals try to conform to norms of these groups

Asch Studies

Members avoid being visibly different

Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others

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The Asch studies, which were conducted in the early 1950s, found that groups can encourage members to change their attitudes and behaviors to be more in line with those of the other group members.

9

Norms and Behavior

Lessons from the Hawthorne studies:

Productivity increased because groups were paid attention to by the observers – not because of changes in environment

Workers in groups do not maximize individual economic rewards

Group standards are set and enforced by the group itself

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The Hawthorne studies were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s. This research has been widely used in the understanding of group interactions. These studies found that worker behavior was highly influenced by group norms and that individual productivity was influenced by the standards the group set forth. Also, money was not as important in determining worker output as group standards and sentiments were.

10

Deviant Workplace Behavior (1 of 2)

Deviant Workplace Behavior: Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members

Likely to flourish when:

Supported by group norms

People are in groups

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Some individuals do not like to conform and adhere to set norms for a number of reasons. Individuals of this nature may engage in deviant workplace behavior or behavior that goes against organizational norms and hinders the desired outcomes of the organization.

11

Deviant Workplace Behavior (2 of 2)

Production

Leaving early

Intentionally working slowly

Wasting resources

Property

Sabotage

Lying about hours worked

Stealing from the organization

Political

Showing favoritism

Gossiping and spreading rumors

Blaming coworkers

Personal aggression

Sexual harassment

Verbal abuse

Stealing from coworkers

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Group Property 3: Status

Status: A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others

Determined by:

The power a person wields over others

A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals

An individual’s personal characteristics

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Status is another group property and refers to the position or rank given to groups or their members as a way to differentiate members. Status can influence behavior and has been found to be a significant motivator. The status characteristics theory suggests that status is derived by one of three sources: the power a person has over others, the ability to contribute to group goals, or personal characteristics.

13

Impact of Status (1 of 2)

Status and Norms

High-status members often have more freedom to deviate from norms and are better able to resist conformity pressures

Status and Group Interaction

High status people are more assertive

Low status members may not participate

Group creativity may suffer

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Status can have an impact on a number of things in groups. First, it can impact norms within a group where high-status members don’t feel the need to conform to group norms but can pressure others to conform. Second, it can impact group interaction, where members who hold more status tend to be more assertive and can hinder new ideas being presented. Finally, it impacts perceived equity in a group, which will influence how engaged others are in the group process.

14

Impact of Status (2 of 2)

Status and Inequity

Perceived inequity creates disequilibrium

Status and Stigmatization

People who are stigmatized can “infect” others

Stigma by association

Group Status

Us versus them mentality

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Status impacts perceived equity in a group, which will influence how engaged others are in the group process. Your status may affected by the people you are affiliated with. Finally, the us versus them mentality that we acquire early in life influences how society treats ingroups and outgroups.

15

Group Property 4: Size

Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks – members perform better

Large groups are consistently better at problem solving

Social loafing: tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone

Consistent with individualistic cultures

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Size is an important factor in group behavior as well and impacts the behavior in groups. The larger the group, the harder it is to get contributions from all members in a timely manner. In contrast, small groups can be limited in their problem-solving ability and the availability of resources could be limited. There are some detrimental behaviors that can occur around group size. For example, as groups get larger, social loafing can occur. Some individuals may put in less effort because they think others in the group will make up for them.

16

Preventing Social Loafing

Set group goals

Increase inter-group competition

Engage in peer evaluation

Select members who have high motivation and like to work in groups

Distribute group rewards based on members’ individual contributions

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Social loafing occurs when individuals don’t work as hard in groups as they would on an individual basis.

When working with groups, managers must be sure to build in individual accountability. Social loafing can be prevented by setting up goals, encouraging intergroup competition, using peer evaluation as part of the feedback process, and linking group rewards to individual behavior.

17

Group Property 5: Cohesiveness

Cohesiveness: The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group

Performance-related norms are the moderating variable for productivity and cohesiveness

High cohesiveness with high norms gives higher productivity

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The final property of groups is group cohesiveness or the degree to which group members want to stay together and are motivated to work together as a group. Managers can do a lot to encourage group cohesiveness.

If performance norms are high, then a more cohesive group will rise to the occasion and will achieve a high level of productivity.

18

Encouraging Cohesiveness

Make the group smaller

Encourage agreement with group goals

Increase the time spent together

Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership

Stimulate competition with other groups

Give rewards to the group rather than to individual members

Physically isolate the group

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As outlined, there are many ways to encourage cohesiveness in a group. Cohesiveness is facilitated when groups are kept small, all members have an understanding of group goals, the group is encouraged to spend time together, and the perceived status of the group is increased. In addition, by stimulating competition with other groups, members will find ways to work together. Managers can also reward the group as a whole and not just individuals within the group. Finally, they can physically isolate the group by sending them on a retreat or giving them their own work space. These actions can significantly influence group cohesiveness.

19

Group Property 6: Diversity

Diversity: the degree to which members of the group are similar to or different from one another

Diversity increases group conflict but may improve group performance in the long term

Types of group diversity

Surface level diversity

Deep level diversity

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Diversity refers to the degree to which members of a group are similar or different from one another. These differences, which may be cultural or demographic, can increase group conflict in the short term, but once the conflicts are resolved, the group may actually perform better than a non-diverse group.

20

Challenges of Group Diversity

Fault lines: perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as gender, race, age, work experience, and education

Splits are generally detrimental to group functioning and performance

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Overall, although research on faultlines suggests that diversity in groups is a potentially double-edged sword, recent work indicates that they can be strategically employed to improve performance.

One study suggested that faultlines based on differences in skill, knowledge, and expertise could be beneficial when the groups were in organizational cultures that strongly emphasized results. This type of culture focuses people’s attention on what’s important to the company rather than on problems arising from sub-groups.

21

Group Decision Making

Strengths

Generate more complete information and knowledge

Increased diversity of views

Increased acceptance of a solution

Weaknesses

Takes longer

Conformity pressures

Discussions can be dominated by one or a few members

Ambiguous responsibility for the final outcome

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Group decision making can be beneficial, but it also has its disadvantages. Groups do tend to generate more complete information and knowledge, as well as offer a greater diversity of views and increased creativity, but since more people are involved in the decision, there is a risk of conformity and no clear responsibility for outcomes. Moreover, discussions can be dominated by a few members.

22

Effectiveness and Efficiency

Effectiveness

Accuracy – group is better than average individual but worse than most accurate group member

Speed – individuals are faster

Creativity – groups are better

Degree of acceptance – groups are better

Efficiency

Groups are generally less efficient

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In some situations groups are more effective or efficient, and in other situations, individuals are. When it comes to accuracy, groups tend to perform better, but they are not as fast. Groups can be more creative, and their decisions may be better accepted because of multi-person buy in.

23

Groupthink and Groupshift

Groupthink: relates to norms and describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views

Groupshift: describes the way group members tend to exaggerate their initial positions when discussing alternatives and arriving at solutions

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Groupthink

Groupthink: deterioration of individual’s mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgments as a result of group pressures

Members:

Rationalize away resistance to assumptions

Pressure doubters to support the majority

Doubters keep silent/minimize their misgivings

Interpret silence as a “yes” vote

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A common problem with groups is groupthink. This occurs when the group is seeking conformity and there is pressure to come to a conclusion without critically appraising alternative viewpoints.

Members are more likely to engage in groupthink when they tend to rationalize away any resistance to assumptions, and they feel pressure to support the majority. Doubters tend to keep silent and minimize their thoughts on what might be wrong with a proposed solution, and the rest of the group interprets this to be a yes vote.

25

Minimizing Groupthink

Limit group size to less than 10

Encourage group leaders to actively seek input from all members and avoid expressing their own opinions

Appoint a “devil’s advocate”

Use exercises that stimulate active discussion of diverse alternatives

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Groupthink can be minimized by limiting the group size, having a leader who actively seeks input from all members, and by appointing a devil’s advocate, or someone who is always trying to look at things from a different perspective.

26

Groupshift or Group Polarization

Groupshift: Group discussions lead members to assume new, more extreme, positions

Groups often take positions of greater risk or greater caution

May be due to diffused responsibility or greater comfort level among members

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Another phenomenon in the group decision-making process is groupshift, where once a solution is selected, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. This can cause a shift to a more conservative or risky decision.

27

Group Decision-Making Techniques

Interacting groups

Meet face to face and rely on verbal and non-verbal interactions to communicate

Brainstorming

Generates a list of creative alternatives

Problem: production blocking

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

Restricts discussion during the decision-making process to encourage independent thinking

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Some group techniques can assist in the decision-making process. The first technique that can help is brainstorming. This is a process that is aimed at generating ideas, where all ideas are welcomed and the group tries to create an environment that overcomes pressure for conformity. The nominal group technique works by restricting discussion during the decision-making process to help participants to operate independently.

28

Evaluating Group Effectiveness

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This exhibit shows that an interacting group is good for achieving commitment to a solution, brainstorming develops group cohesiveness, and the nominal group technique is an inexpensive means for generating a large number of ideas.

29

Implications for Managers

Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in organizations, to either a positive or negative effect.

To decrease the possibility of deviant workplace activities, ensure that group norms do not support antisocial behavior.

Pay attention to the status aspect of groups.

Use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for action-taking tasks.

To increase employee satisfaction, ensure people perceive their job roles accurately.

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Recognize that groups can dramatically affect individual behavior in organizations, to either a positive or negative effect.

To decrease the possibility of deviant workplace activities, ensure that group norms do not support antisocial behavior.

Pay attention to the organizational status levels of the employee groups you create.

When forming employee groups, use larger groups for fact-finding activities and smaller groups for action-taking tasks.

To increase employee satisfaction, work on making certain your employees perceive their job roles the same way you perceive their roles.

30

Copyright

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,

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fourteenth Edition

Chapter 17

Organizational Change and Stress Management

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1

After studying this chapter you should be able to: (1 of 2)

Contrast the forces for change and planned change.

Describe ways to overcome resistance to change.

Compare the four main approaches to managing organizational change.

Demonstrate three ways of creating a culture for change.

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After studying this chapter you should be able to: (2 of 2)

Identify the potential environmental, organizational, and personal sources of stress at work as well as the role of individual and cultural differences.

Identify the physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms of stress at work.

Describe individual and organizational approaches to managing stress at work.

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Forces for Change

Nature of the workforce

Technology

Economic shocks

Competition

Social trends

World politics

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There are many forces that stimulate change, including the nature of the workforce, technology, economic shocks, competition, social trends, and world politics. All these things can create change in a workplace.

4

Reactionary versus Planned Change

Change:

Making things different

Planned change:

Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented

Change agents:

People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities

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In this chapter, we address change as an intentional, goal-oriented activity.

5

Resistance to Change

People tend to resist change, even in the face of evidence of its benefits

Can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate

Remember, not all change is good

Change agents need to carefully think through the implications

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Whenever change is present, there is resistance to change. Individuals and groups become comfortable with things that are familiar, and change threatens the status quo. There are different ways that change is resisted by employees.

It is important to note that not all change is good. Speed can lead to bad decisions; sometimes those initiating change fail to realize the full magnitude of the effects or their true costs.

Change can be good, but change agents need to carefully think through its implications.

6

Sources of Resistance

Individual

Habit

Security

Economic factors

Fear of the unknown

Selective information processing

Organizational

Structural inertia

Limited focus of change

Group inertia

Threat to expertise

Threat to established power relationships and resource allocations

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There are many sources of resistance to change, as seen in this slide. It can take the form of individual resistance, such as fear of the unknown or security issues, or organizational resistance, such as threat to expertise, structural inertia, or limited focus of change.

7

Overcoming Resistance to Change

Communication

Participation

Building support and commitment

Developing positive relationships

Implementing changes fairly

Manipulation and cooptation

Selecting people who accept change

Coercion

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When managers face resistance to change, there are some useful tactics they can utilize to help people overcome it. These tactics include communication, getting people to participate in the process, and building support and commitment. It can also include developing positive relationships and being sure to implement the change fairly by applying a consistent and fair process, using manipulation and co-optation to spin the message in order to gain cooperation, or selecting people from the beginning who are more willing to accept change. Finally, a manager can resort to coercion, using direct threats and force to make people change. This is rarely a good option.

8

Approaches to Managing Organizational Change

Lewin’s Three-Step Model of Change

Kotter’s Eight-Step Model of the Change Process

Action Research

Organizational Development

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There are four main approaches to managing organizational change. They are Lewin’s three-step model of change, Kotter’s eight-step model of the change process, action research, and organizational development.

9

Lewin’s Three-Step Model

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Lewin offers a three-step model to help facilitate the change process. He sets forth that change efforts need to “unfreeze” individual resistance and group conformity to help them move forward, and then you need to refreeze the changes by balancing driving and restraining forces. This will help to move people through the change process and solidify the desired behaviors/outcomes moving forward.

10

Unfreezing the Status Quo

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In the unfreezing stage, Lewin identifies driving and restraining forces. Driving forces are those that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining forces are those that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.

11

Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan

Create urgency

Form coalition

Create new vision

Communicate the vision

Empower others

Reward “wins”

Consolidate improvements

Reinforce the change

Unfreezing

Movement

Refreezing

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Kotter also offers a model to look at change that builds on the initial ideas of Lewin. He sets forth the following eight steps:

Establish a sense of urgency.

Form a coalition.

Create a new vision.

Communicate the vision.

Empower others by removing barriers.

Create and reward short-term “wins.”

Consolidate, reassess, and adjust.

Reinforce the changes.

12

Action Research

Action research: Change process based on the systematic collection of data and the selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate

Five steps:

Diagnosis

Analysis

Feedback

Action

Evaluation

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