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Professional Paper Worksheet


  1. Carefully read these directions and the grading rubric below.
  2. Download the required template below under Template.
  3. Rename that template as Your Last Name Professional Paper Worksheet.docx.  This must be saved as a Microsoft Word document (.docx). Save it to  your own computer or flash drive in a location where you will be able to  retrieve it later. Type your assignment directly on the saved document.  Save your work often..

5. This assignment must use the required article and sentences stated  in the announcement described above to complete the following items:

  1. Reference for the assigned journal article,
  2. Quotation with citation,
  3. Paraphrased area with citation, and
  4. Assigned article summary.

6. Each of required items above is clearly described on the  Professional Paper Worksheet Template. Page numbers for resources in the  current APA Manual are provided on the template for your use

7. The Assigned Article Summary that you write must be 175-200 words.  The Summary must contain the assigned sentence for quotation and  citation as noted in the announcement, the assigned sentence for the  paraphrased area with citation as noted in the announcement, several  additional paraphrased areas, and appropriately formatted citations. You  may also include one more short quotation if you wish.

8. When your Professional Paper Worksheet Assignment is completed, save  and close the completed template. Click the Submit button at the top of  this page to upload your completed assignment.

The required sentence for quotation and citation  is located on page 65 in the first full paragraph in the second column.  The sentence begins with the words: Nurse leaders are in a unique  position…

The required sentence for paraphrasing and citation  is also located on page 65 in the second column underneath the heading  Promote a Growth Mindset. The sentence begins with the words:  Constructive feedback that is taken and put into practice can lead to…

Follow the directions on the Graded Assignment pages to complete each  assignment. Contact your instructor with any questions. Thank you.


64 AJN ▼ September 2019 ▼ Vol. 119, No. 9

The Art of Giving Feedback Regular feedback is a powerful tool for developing your team and supporting their growth.

Giving constructive feedback is an essential lead-ership skill. It is only through feedback that nursing staff understands what they are doing right or what they may need to do differently. The best feedback is that which is immediate and action- able. The annual performance evaluation alone does not meet the needs of the contemporary workforce; our millennial workforce actually has a desire for frequent feedback from their leaders, according to a 2017 Gallup report.1 In 2014, Stone and Heen recom- mended that leaders wishing to be effective engage in three types of feedback conversations with their staff.2

The first type is appreciation feedback, which con- veys gratitude for the employee’s contribution. Ac- cording to Kouzes and Posner, giving appreciative feedback is a means of “encouraging the heart,” one of five exemplary practices of leadership.3 Positive feedback has been shown to be extremely important to maintaining team and individual motivation. This type of input both builds a relationship and improves the engagement of staff in their work.

The second type of feedback is coaching feedback, which is designed to expand knowledge, sharpen skills, and develop staff. Coaching staff to higher levels of performance has become a vital part of the leader’s role. When you coach, you can help your team mem- bers build personal mastery, reach a higher level of productivity, increase their professional competence, manage conflict better, and reduce their stress. Your goal in coaching is to create a practice setting that en- sures quality, safety, cost-effectiveness, and joy and meaning.

Ideally, staff receive the coaching and appreciation feedback throughout the year, in contrast to the third type of feedback, the performance evaluation, which typically occurs once a year (or more often) and in- volves rating staff against a set of standards.

For most leaders, giving positive feedback comes easily, but giving negative feedback is more challenging. Leaders often choose to avoid discussions with staff

that they think will end in a confrontation. However, when problematic behavior is not addressed, it lowers the morale of the team and erodes trust in the leader. A failure to address performance issues on your team can have serious ramifications. When poor practices are engaged in repeatedly and nothing is done about them, staff begin to accept a lower standard of care, and the behaviors can become normalized. Timely and honest feedback—delivered respectfully—can build the confidence of staff and create trust in the leader. Regular feedback is a powerful tool for devel- oping your team and supporting their career growth. Feedback is like a muscle; it must be used frequently in order to develop. The purpose of this article is to pro- vide best-practice strategies for giving effective feed- back—through building trust, promoting a growth mindset, and developing the courage to tackle difficult performance conversations.

ESTABLISH A CLIMATE OF TRUST It is often said that trust is the currency of leadership. Leaders who are not trusted by staff experience chal- lenges when giving feedback3, 4; However, trust is not built overnight. In The Seven Habits of Highly Effec- tive People, Covey uses the metaphor of an emotional bank account to describe how trust is built.5 If, as a leader, I make deposits with you in this emotional bank account through confidentiality, courtesy, kindness, honesty, and keeping my commitments, then I build a reserve of trust. Your trust in me grows, and I can call on that trust when I need it. When trust is high, giving feedback is more comfortable, and it is more openly received. If instead I show a lack of concern or disrespect, if I fail to follow through on commitments or overreact in situations, then my emotional bank ac- count can quickly become overdrawn. You won’t trust me when I give you feedback because you don’t feel psychologically safe.

Psychological safety is crucial to creating an environ- ment that fosters learning and a strong feedback loop.

For many leaders, giving positive feedback comes easily, but giving negative feedback can be more chal- lenging. This article provides best-practice strategies for giving effective feedback—through building trust, promoting a growth mindset, and developing the courage to tackle difficult performance conversations.

[email protected] AJN ▼ September 2019 ▼ Vol. 119, No. 9 65

By Rose O. Sherman, EdD, BSN, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN

Expectations regarding interpersonal consequences in a work setting are formed by the level of psycho- logical safety—and determine one’s behavior in that setting. Amy Edmondson, an expert on psychologi- cal safety in the workplace, describes it as “the belief that the work environment is safe for interpersonal risk taking.”6 An action that might be unthinkable in one setting would be readily taken in another where there is a culture of psychological safety. Feedback is not as threatening in environments that are psycho- logically safe because staff realize that it is given to help them to grow professionally. In such an environ- ment, staff can take it for granted that others will respond positively when they put themselves on the line by asking a question, seeking feedback, report- ing a mistake, or introducing a new idea.

Consistency in how leaders approach delivering feedback is critical to building trust. When the staff expect to receive feedback on an ongoing basis, the feedback feels safer. This expectation should be set during the orientation process. A leader should have regular check-ins with new staff members to both give and receive feedback, which helps to build strong relationships. It also reduces the anxiety a staff mem- ber may feel when a leader asks to talk to her or him. Performance feedback is especially essential for new graduates, who often have difficulty gauging how well they are doing in their role. One challenge with

some new graduates is that they may become stressed and anxious and even demonstrate catastrophic think- ing when suggestions are made to improve their per- formance. Seligman believes that managers have the capacity to help to decrease stress by using an active, authentic, and constructive style.7 New graduates need to be coached from the time of their job inter- view that feedback is part of professional develop- ment and that they should expect to receive it and to act on suggestions that are made.

Nurse leaders are in a unique position to build trust by modeling how to receive feedback. When leaders see feedback given to them as a gift and are not emotionally triggered by it, they set a pow- erful example for staff. When leaders demonstrate feedback-seeking behaviors, it results in greater job satisfaction for staff, greater creativity on the team, and lower turnover.2 DeLong suggests that leaders can do this by asking the following three feedback- seeking questions8: 1. What should I stop doing? 2. What should I keep doing? 3. What should I start doing?

PROMOTE A GROWTH MINDSET Constructive feedback that is taken and put into prac- tice can lead to significant improvements in perfor- mance. The key is to be intentional in how it is given.

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66 AJN ▼ September 2019 ▼ Vol. 119, No. 9


The goal of the leader when providing feedback should be to promote a “growth mindset.” Carol Dweck is a pioneer in the study of how adopting a growth mind- set can transform how staff perceive feedback. A mindset, according to Dweck, is perceptions or theo- ries that people hold about themselves.9 Mindsets can either be growth oriented or fixed. Individuals with a growth mindset believe that their skills and abilities can be developed through feedback about their per- formance and hard work. Brains and talent are just the starting point. This view of oneself creates a bet- ter acceptance of feedback and a love of learning. In contrast, staff members with a fixed mindset may believe that they are doing the best they can and can no longer grow professionally. Individuals with a fixed mindset find feedback to be more threatening because they lack confidence about their ability to improve.

When a growth mindset is encouraged in staff, negative feedback is easier to receive because they have confidence in their ability to fix their perfor- mance problems. To achieve a growth mindset, feed- back on performance needs to be delivered in the right way. Some suggestions from experts include the following8, 10, 11: • Keep it timely. Performance feedback on specific

problems should occur in a timely way, so the problem or event is fresh in the staff member’s mind.

• Keep it private. Performance feedback, if negative, should be given in a secluded area where others can’t hear what is being said.

• Keep the focus positive. Performance feedback should address areas for improvement but also include what is going well.

• Keep it inclusive. Performance-feedback conver- sations should include the thoughts and ideas of the staff member concerning the issues discussed.

• Keep it factual. Performance feedback should be based on specific observations and facts, not on opinions, gossip, or generalizations about behav- ior.

• Keep it specific. Performance feedback should address only one or two distinct areas in which performance either was outstanding or needs im- provement.

• Keep it goal oriented. Performance feedback should include goals for the way forward and when a follow-up conversation will take place.

USE AN EVIDENCE-BASED FEEDBACK APPROACH Using an evidence-based framework for feedback conversations can help leaders stay on track with the feedback that they want to deliver and avoid the drama that sometimes accompanies negative behav-

ioral feedback. The Center for Creative Leadership has developed what it calls a situation–behavior– impact (SBI) model that is easy to remember and ef- fective when used.12 We can illustrate the model by using the following case scenario often faced by new managers:

Jackie Smith started in her nurse manager role one month ago in an ED. She notices that one of her nurses is repeatedly late for her shift. The previous manager ignored the behavior. Ms. Smith can see the impact that the nurse’s lateness has on the rest of the team and is determined to take action.

Without planning an intentional conversation, this discussion could quickly deteriorate. The nurse might tell the new manager that it has never been an issue before and she is not the only staff member who is late to work. This is avoided when the SBI framework is used to frame the discussion:

Situation. The situation needs to be described along with the details of what happened and when. Ms. Smith might say, “Last Monday, you were 25 minutes late for your shift.”

Behavior. The specific conduct about which feed- back is given should be fact based and judgment free. Ms. Smith might say, “You didn’t notify the charge nurse that you would be late, and she reported to me that this was the second time this pay period that it has happened.”

Impact. The effect that the behavior had, whether positive or negative, is described. Ms. Smith might say, “It may not have been your intent, but this be- havior is affecting the work of the team. The night charge nurse couldn’t leave on time. Both the patient report and rounding were delayed as an outcome of your lateness.”

Ms. Smith will want to seek the nurse’s reaction to what is said. It can be helpful when giving feed- back to have some guiding questions to use in the conversation to gain clarification about the nurse’s viewpoint.10 Here are some examples of what you can ask: • Is there more I need to know about this situation? • How do you know your perceptions are accurate? • What could you have done differently in this sit-

uation? • How could you handle this situation differently

in the future? • How might we fix this?

The next phase of the conversation is a discussion about expectations. The manager would acknowledge the value that the nurse brings to the team but also convey that aspects of the professional behavior need

[email protected] AJN ▼ September 2019 ▼ Vol. 119, No. 9 67

to change. She or he could then work with the nurse to establish a plan for moving forward that includes a plan for ongoing feedback. It will be important that when improvement is made, it is acknowledged and reinforced.

MANAGE CHALLENGING FEEDBACK SITUATIONS It is easy to be a great nurse leader when things are going well and everyone is performing at her or his highest level. The real test for leaders is in how they manage poor performance or complex behavioral is- sues. Patrick Lencioni warns leaders that teams be- come dysfunctional when conflict is avoided or there is a lack of accountability among team members.13 These challenging conversations are sometimes la- beled crucial discussions because there are opposing viewpoints, the stakes are high, and emotions are in- tense.14 Brené Brown writes about the need for leaders to have the courage to provide feedback in difficult situations. She reminds us that “clear is kind, unclear is unkind.”15 Learning to manage tough conversations is a vital nursing leadership skill.

Before you begin a crucial feedback situation, ask yourself what you want to see as an outcome and what is at stake.14 This allows you to begin with the right motives. The conversation that you will have if you want to help a staff member with performance or behavior is very different from one in which you plan to ask for a resignation or recommend a trans- fer. The SBI framework outlined above is an excellent way to stay on track regarding what you want to say. It is important not to let the conversation enter into a mode in which both parties become defensive and di- alogue breaks down. Leaders should identify shared points of agreement, and avoid creating a dynamic in which there is an emotional reaction to the feedback that is given.

Performance-feedback conversations are not “one and done.” To successfully conclude the discussion, you need to come to a consensus about what will happen next. Document who will do what by when and agree to have a follow-up meeting at a specific time using whatever method is recommended by your human resources department. The feedback loop is an essential part of the process. Leaders must follow up on any goals that were set. Achievements can be rein- forced and recognized. There may be a need to revise plans that do not work. If no progress is made, the next step could be to begin a disciplinary action pro- cess. The decision to act on feedback that has been given is a choice and not one that all staff make.16

The key to success in giving uncomfortable feed- back is advance planning. You should know how the discussion will be conducted, who will be pres- ent, what you intend to say, and what you hope the

outcome will be. Writing down your key points can be helpful to keep you on track. New nurse leaders may find that a rehearsal with a seasoned colleague playing the part of a defensive staff member can be useful. Conversations about tough issues can be very challenging and sometimes personally painful. As leaders gain skill, these discussions become easier and help them grow as leaders.

REFLEC T ON YOUR EXPERIENCES GIVING FEEDBACK Not all feedback sessions will have the outcomes desired.11

These situations can be very stressful. If not man- aged well, these interactions not only increase our stress levels but also • rob us of our dignity because we may respond in

a very reactive way. • destroy our confidence in our leadership. • destroy our morale and that of the team. • foster negativity in the environment. • decrease the productivity of the team.

Until we reflect on situations, looking honestly at our behavior and actions, we may not develop the insights that will help us behave differently in the fu- ture. The act of leadership reflection can help build our resiliency. It offers us the opportunity to consider changes we would make to how we deliver feedback instead of ruminating on the outcomes of our ac- tions. The act of writing down your ideas can help to clarify your thinking. You will want to describe the conversations you have as factually and objectively as possible. You can then recall your reactions, your thoughts, and your feelings. Most significantly, you want to consider your responses to these discus- sions and reflect on any lessons you have learned from them: • Do you see a pattern in your reactions? • Do you easily become defensive when your lead-

ership skills are questioned? • Are there opportunities to further develop your

emotional intelligence so future conversations might have a different outcome?

CONCLUSION Work culture has been described as the invisible ar- chitecture of teams and in organizations.17 It is built on shared core values, attitudes, and behaviors. Cul- tures can be healthy and positive, but they can also become toxic if problems are not discussed through feedback. Becoming skilled in the art of giving both positive and negative feedback is crucial to being an effective leader. Like all skills, giving effective feed- back takes practice and often courage. When it is done well with the right intentions, feedback can lead to remarkable changes in performance. ▼


Rose O. Sherman is an emeritus professor of nursing at Florida Atlantic University and a current faculty member in the Marian K. Shaughnessy Nurse Leadership Academy in the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. She also serves as editor-in-chief of Nurse Leader, the official journal of the American Organization for Nursing Leadership. Contact author: [email protected] The author has disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

REFERENCES 1. Gallup, Inc. State of the American workplace. Princeton, NJ;

2017. White paper; 238085/state-american-workplace-report-2017.aspx.

2. Stone D, Heen S. Thanks for the feedback: the science and art of receiving feedback well. New York, NY: Penguin Books; 2015.

3. Kouzes JM, Posner BZ. The leadership challenge: how to make extraordinary things happen in organizations. Hobo- ken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; 2016.

4. Whitmore J. Coaching for performance: the principles and practices of coaching and leadership. 5th ed. London, UK: Nicholas Brealey Publishing; 2017.

5. Covey SR. The 7 habits of highly effective people: powerful lessons in personal change (interactive edition). West Valley City, UT: FranklinCovey Co.; 2016.

6. Edmondson AC. The fearless organization: creating psycho- logical safety in the workplace for learning, innovation, and growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 2018.

7. Seligman MEP. Building resilience. Harv Bus Rev 2011;89(4): 100-6.

8. DeLong TJ. Three questions for effective feedback. Harv Bus Rev 2011 Aug 4. tions-for-effective-feedback.

9. Dweck C. Mindset: changing the way you think to fulfill your potential. New York: Little Brown Book Group Ltd; 2017.

10. Blatchley A. A nurse manager’s guide to giving effective feedback. Nurse Lead 2017;15:331-4.

11. Kowalski K. Giving and receiving feedback: part II. J Contin Educ Nurs 2017;48(10):445-6.

12. Gentry W. Be the boss everyone wants to work for: a guide for new leaders. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2016.

13. Lencioni P. Overcoming the five dysfunctions of a team: a field guide for leaders, managers, and facilitators. San Fran- cisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.

14. Patterson K, et al. Crucial conversations: tools for talking when stakes are high. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

15. Brown B. Dare to lead: brave work, tough conversations, whole hearts. New York: Random House; 2018.

16. Cox S. Give the gift of feedback. Nurs Manage 2016;47(5): 44-8.

17. Tye J, Dent B. Building a culture of ownership in healthcare: the invisible architecture of core values, attitude, and self- empowerment. Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau Interna- tional; 2017.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

The Health Career Authority



NR351 Week 4 Professional Paper Worksheet Template 


1. See the NR351 Week 4 Professional Paper Worksheet Assignment page.  

2. Read the NR351 Announcement entitled IMPORTANT: Assigned Article for Weeks 4 & 6 Assignments:  

a. Download in PDF format the assigned article linked in that announcement; save it to your computer for future use.  

b. Locate the sentence required for quotation and citation.

c. Locate the sentence required for paraphrasing and citation.

3. Read the entire article. 

4. Carefully review the resources and page numbers below to help you with APA format in this assignment.  

5. Complete each item below. All lines should be double spaced.  

6. Submit the completed template on the assignment page.  

Complete each item below :  

1. Reference for Assigned Article:  

Create a reference for the assigned article (see announcement) using correct APA format including: author(s), year, article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, page numbers, italics, parentheses, punctuation, double line spacing, and hanging indent. Include DOI if available. 

[See pages 316-317 in APA 7th Edition Manual] 


Type the reference for the assigned article here beginning on the line below:  


2. Quotation and Citation:  

Type the assigned quotation from the assigned article (see announcement) using correct APA citation including quotation marks, names of author(s), year, page abbreviation, page number, and parentheses, and punctuation.  

[See pages 261-262, 266, and 270-272 in APA 7th Edition Manual] 

Type the assigned quotation and citation here beginning on the line below:  


3. Paraphrased Area and Citation:  

Type appropriately paraphrased version of the assigned sentence (see announcement) using correct APA citation including names of author(s), year, and parentheses, and punctuation.  

[See pages 261-262, 266, and 269 in APA 7th Edition Manual] 

Type an appropriate paraphrase and citation of the assigned sentence here beginning on the line below:  




4. Assigned Article Summary:  

Summarize the assigned article using 175-200 words. Include all of the main ideas from the assigned article. The Summary must contain the assigned sentence for quotation and citation as noted in the announcement, the assigned sentence for the paraphrased area with citation as noted in the announcement, several additional paraphrased areas, and appropriately formatted citations.  You may also include one more short quotation if you wish.

Type your 175-200 word summary of the assigned article here beginning on the next line:  

© 2019. Chamberlain University, LLC. All rights reserved.


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