Chat with us, powered by LiveChat The is a research paper on Human Trafficking. Listed below is the instructions and grading rubric on how the paper is to be - School Writers

The is a research paper on Human Trafficking. Listed below is the instructions and grading rubric on how the paper is to be

The is a research paper on Human Trafficking. Listed below is the instructions and grading rubric on how the paper is to be constructed. Please read the instructions very carefully and the grading rubric for they are very important.

Thailand is the country this assignment is about.

DUE: JANUARY 15, 2022 BY 10 a.m (EASTERN TIME) Saturday. NO LATE WORK!

Book References:

Reichel, P., & Albanese, J. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of transnational crime and justice. SAGE publications.

Albanese, J., & Reichel, P. (Eds.). (2013). Transnational organized crime: an overview from six continents.

 King James Bible. (1970). The Holy Bible. Camden, New Jersey. Thomas Nelson, Inc. 

CJUS 810

Research Paper Assignment Instructions (DUE: 1/15/2022)

DUE: January 15, 2022 by 10 a.m. (eastern time) on Saturday. no late work!

Instructions (Research Paper: human trafficking)

· Each research paper should be a minimum of 6 to 8 pages.

· The vast difference in page count is because some countries and/or crime/topics are quite easy to study and some countries and/or crime/topics have very limited information.

· In some instances, there will be a plethora of information and you must use skilled writing to maintain proper page count.

· Please keep in mind that this is doctoral level analysis and writing – you are to take the hard-earned road – the road less travelled – the scholarly road in forming your paper.

· The paper must use current APA style, and the page count does not include the title page, abstract, reference section, or any extra material.

· The minimum elements of the paper are listed below.

· You must use a minimum of 8 recent (some countries/crimes/topics may have more recent research articles than others), relevant, and academic (peer review journals preferred and professional journals allowed if used judiciously) sources, at least 2 sources being the Holy Bible, and one recent (some countries/crime/topics have more recent than others) news article. Books may be used but are considered “additional: sources beyond the stated minimums. You may use .gov sources as your recent, relevant, and academic sources if the writing is academic in nature (authored works). You may also use United Nations and Whitehouse.gov documents as academic documents.

· Again, this paper must reflect graduate level research and writing style. If you need to go over the maximum page count you must obtain professor permission in advance! Please reference the Research Paper Rubric when creating your research paper.

These are minimum guidelines – you may expand the topics covered in your papers.

1. Begin your paper with a brief analysis of the following elements:

0. Introduction to the country (Thailand)

1. Analyze the nature of organized crime in the assigned area (you may narrow the scope of your analysis through your introduction or thesis statement if needed)

1. Analyze the impact of organized crime in the assigned area on the government.

1. Briefly propose policies that may be helpful in mitigating organized crime in the assigned area.

1. A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the nature of the organized crime system, the impact on the country, or your proposed policy to mitigate the system.

The following is an outline of the minimum points to be covered in your paper – Crime Typology Topics:

These are minimum guidelines – you may expand the topics covered in your papers…

1. Analyze the nature of assigned crime/issue with respect to (at a minimum):

0. Scope of the crime/issue

0. Financial impact – if possible

0. Human impact – if possible

0. Analysis of various countries laws dealing with the crime/issue.

1. Briefly propose policies that may be helpful in mitigating the crime/topic on a specific country or transnational scale.

1. A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the crime/topic

Page 2 of 2

,

Criteria Ratings Points

Content

Introduction

19 to >16.0 pts

Advanced

The introductory paragraph contains a strong thesis statement, research question (s), and/or statement of research purpose and provides an overview of the paper.

16 to >14.0 pts

Proficient

The introductory paragraph contains a moderately developed thesis statement, research question(s), and/or statement of research purpose.

14 to >0.0 pts

Developing

The thesis statement, research question(s) and overview of the paper need improvement.

0 pts

Not Present

19 pts

Content

Analysis

20 to >18.0 pts

Advanced

The topic is clearly presented and discussed in detail. Key terms are defined as needed. Complex issues are navigated with precision.

18 to >16.0 pts

Proficient

The topic is presented and discussed appropriately. Key terms are defined as needed. Complex issues are recognized.

16 to >0.0 pts

Developing

The topic is unclear or fairly clear but discussed too broadly or does not meet expectations. Contextual factors are weakly considered and lacking in some significant areas. Complex issues are overlooked or handled without care.

0 pts

Not Present

20 pts

Content

Research & Support

19 to >16.0 pts

Advanced

• Sources are evaluated critically for applicability in the paper. • Research may incorporate multiple viewpoints of complex issues. • Arguments are correctly supported with research.

16 to >14.0 pts

Proficient

• Sources are used correctly. • Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues. • Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues. • Arguments are correctly supported with research.

14 to >0.0 pts

Developing

• Sources are used but not critically evaluated. • Arguments incorporate limited research but often include personal opinion without appropriate support. • Sources are, at times, not used appropriately. • Research is not aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues.

0 pts

Not Present

19 pts

Content

Conclusion

15 to >13.0 pts

Advanced

The conclusion is strong and clearly summarizes the research presented in the body of the paper.

13 to >11.0 pts

Proficient

The conclusion summarizes the research presented in the body of the paper.

11 to >0.0 pts

Developing

The conclusion does not adequately summarize the research presented in the body of the paper.

0 pts

Not Present

15 pts

Research Paper Grading Rubric | CJUS810_B02_202220

Criteria Ratings Points

Content

Christian Worldview

15 to >13.0 pts

Advanced

Creates Christian Worldview (CWV) Section and applies CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with specific biblical references (book, chapter, and verse).

13 to >11.0 pts

Proficient

Creates Christian Worldview Section and applies general CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with global referencing to biblical references (reference does not have book, chapter, and verse, rather, “the Bible says type of references).

11 to >0.0 pts

Developing

Christian Worldview mentioned. No specific section in the paper. Only general CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with global referencing to biblical references (reference does not have book, chapter, and verse, rather, “the Bible says type of references).

0 pts

Not Present

15 pts

Structure

Mechanics

12 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

• No grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present. • Voice and person are used correctly and consistently. Writing is precise. Word choice is appropriate. • Student has proper page count. 6-8 double-spaced pages (or more if page count waived by instructor) not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

• Few grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present. • Voice and person are used correctly. Writing style is sufficient. Word choice is adequate. • Student has 70% of the proper page count of 6 page double-spaced pages not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

• Several grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present. • Voice and person are used inconsistently. Writing style is understandable but could be improved. Word choice is generally good. • Student has less than 70% of the proper page count of 6 page double-spaced pages not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

0 pts

Not Present

12 pts

Structure

Mechanics

13 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

• Citations and format are in current APA style. • Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are correctly formatted. • Paper is double-spaced with 1-inch margins and written in 12 point Times New Roman font.

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

• Citations and format are in current APA style with few errors. • Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are present with few errors. • Paper is double-spaced with 1-inch margins and written in 12 point Times New Roman font.

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

• Citations and format are in current APA style though several errors are present. • Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are included though several errors are present. • Paper is double-spaced, but margins or fonts are incorrect.

0 pts

Not Present

13 pts

Research Paper Grading Rubric | CJUS810_B02_202220

Criteria Ratings Points

Structure

Research Elements

12 to >10.0 pts

Advanced

• Academic primary and .gov (when necessary) are used well and include a minimum of 11 citations as listed below. • 8 citation must be recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor). Relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement. • Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations. • Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study. • Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met. • The best 11 citations will be graded.

10 to >9.0 pts

Proficient

• Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues. • Academic primary and .gov (when necessary) are used well and include a minimum of 70% of the required 11 citations as listed below. • 8 citations must be recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor). Relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement. • Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations. • Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study. • Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met. • The best 11 citations will be graded.

9 to >0.0 pts

Developing

• Less than 70% of the Academic sources required 11 citations as listed below are used. Reliance on popular sources is evident. • An incomplete or inaccurate reference section is provided. • 8 citations must be recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor), relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement. • Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations. • Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study. • Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met. • The best 11 citations will be graded.

0 pts

Not Present

12 pts

Total Points: 125

Research Paper Grading Rubric | CJUS810_B02_202220

,

CHAPTER 1

Historical Overview of Transnational Crime

Mitchel P. Roth

It has only been 30 years since the President of the Societe Internationale de Criminologie, Denis Szabo, wrote in the preface to a book of essays by criminologists concerning new trends in transnational crime that “the 30th International Course in Criminology chose an uncommon subject—transnational crime—which is rarely examined within our discipline” (MacNamara & Stead, 1982, p. vii). Anyone who has attended a criminology or criminal justice conference over the past 20 years would be struck at how recently transnational crime was considered peripheral to the study of crime. In the 1990s, increasing focus on the globalization and increasing complexity of criminality has led many criminologists to specialize in the internationalization of crimes. This chapter chronicles the cross-border historical antecedents of modern transnational crimes and the processes that gave rise to them.

Defining Transnational Crime

One of the more challenging tasks for anyone seeking to identify transnational crime has been determining what “transnational crime” actually refers to. What has not helped the dialogue is that “the terminology is highly unstable and at least four terms overlap each other,” including transnational crime, transnational organized crime, international organized crime, and multinational crime (Madsen, 2009, pp. 7–8). Still others refer to this phenomenon as cross-national crime and cross-border or transboundary criminality. However, the issue becomes clearer once international crimes are subtracted from the equation, since the vast majority of definitions of international crime refer to activities that threaten global security, such as genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Of all the expressions that have been used, transnational has had the most adherents.

For much of human history, criminal activity has been a local or regional concern. Prior to the great strides in transportation and communication technology in the 19th century, the conceptual underpinnings of transnational crime were still years away. By most accounts, the term transnational crime from a criminological perspective emerged sometime in the mid-1970s, following the lead of the United Nations, which was brandishing the term in an attempt to identify types of crimes that transcended national borders. Like terrorism and organized crime, there is no accepted consensus on a definition of transnational crime. The expression was developed by the U.N. Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch in 1974 to guide discussion at a United Nations crime conference. Four years later, Gerhard Mueller—a prominent criminologist and chief of the U.N. Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch from 1974–1982—suggested that

 

it referred to a criminological term, with no claim to providing a juridical concept, and consisted simply of a list of five activities: 1) crime as business, organized crime, white-collar crime, and corruption; 2) offenses involving works of art and other cultural property; 3) criminality associated with alcoholism and drug abuse; 4) violence of transnational and comparative international significance; and 5) criminality associated with migration and flight from natural disaster and hostilities. (Reuter & Petrie, 1999, p. 7)

 

One high-ranking Interpol official contributed an “early informal” definition of transnational crimes, relegating them to crimes “whose resolution necessitates the cooperation between two or more countries” (Bossard, 1990, p. 3). In 1994, one leading authority asserted that “transnational crime is a crime undertaken by an organization based in one state but committed in several host countries, whose market conditions are favorable, and risk apprehension is low” (Williams, 1994, p. 96). Likewise, the authors of one recent study defined transnational crime as “those activities involving the crossing of national borders and violation of at least one country’s criminal laws.” Furthermore, they suggest that most examples of this form of crime are “economically motivated and involve some form of smuggling” (Andreas & Nadelmann, 2006, p. 255, n. 3).

In 1995, the United Nations defined transnational crime as “offenses whose inception, proportion and/or direct or indirect effects involve more than one country” (U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC], 2002, p. 4). It identified a laundry list of 18 categories of transnational offenses whose inception, perpetration, and direct or indirect efforts involve more than one country. These categories include money laundering, terrorist activities, theft of art and cultural objects, theft of intellectual property, illicit arms trafficking, aircraft hijacking, maritime piracy, insurance fraud, computer crime, environmental crime, trafficking in persons, trade in human body parts, illegal drug trafficking, fraudulent bankruptcy, infiltration of legal business, and the corruption and bribery of public or party officials.

There are legions of transnational criminals operating solo or with a handful of associates. However, the emphasis on transnational crime is heavily predicated on the activities associated with “transnational organized crime.” Over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that the notion of “organized” groups of actors in a traditional sense is a vestige of the past. Well into the 1990s, organized crime definitions were heavily based on the hierarchical nature of crime networks and syndicates. This became especially clear in 2000 when the United Nations in its Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNODC, 2000) defined organized crime

 

as a structured group of three or more persons existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences in accordance with this Convention in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or material benefit. (UNODC, 2000, Article 2a)

 

A serious crime refers to “conduct constituting a criminal offense punishable by a maximum deprivation of liberty of at least four years or a more serious penalty” (UNODC, Article 2b). Organized crime is regarded as transnational when it

 

(a) is committed in more than one State; (b) is committed in one State but a part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another State; (c) is committed in one State but involves an organized crime group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or (d) is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another State. (UNODC, 2000, Article 3.2)

 

Another way to view transnational crime is crime “that in one of several ways involves two or more sovereign jurisdictions” (Madsen, 2009, p. 8). While the tendency is to focus on violent or high profile crimes such as the drug trade and human trafficking, transnational crime also involves the more mundane, such as the parental dispute over custody of a child involving two countries. Crimes can also be organized and transnational, but do not actually violate international law, such as the smuggling of nontaxed tobacco products from country to another (Madsen, 2009, p. 9).

Definitions of complex terminology can be highly problematic. Indeed, it becomes even more so as transnational crime becomes more and more globalized. These problems are exacerbated when it comes to distinguishing virtual borders from geographical ones. Thus, one can hypothetically commit a crime in another country without leaving his or her home country, such as in the case of Nigerian advance fee fraud, better known by its criminal statute number, “419.” Definitions become even more useless when one considers formerly distinct forms of criminality such as organized crime, white-collar crime, and terrorist activities, which increasingly fall under the rubric of transnational crime. More recently, various academics and officials have expanded the definition to include new activities such as terrorism and cybercrime, but not without some debate. In the end, however, one must accept the fact that “computer networks and the Internet do not recognize international boundaries” (Fairchild & Dammer, 2001, p. 327) any more than drugs and human traffickers do.

Any historical examination of modern transnational crime will reveal that there are actually few new examples of transnational crime. The illegal trafficking and smuggling of weapons, migrants, illegal substances, and humans, as well as terrorism, tax evasion, environmental crimes, corruption, and financial fraud, have been taking place for decades if not centuries. What has changed according to several researchers is the scale of these activities and the increasing “deterritorialization” of crime as criminal actors make use of new advances in communication and transportation (Dandurand, Tkachuk, & Castle, 1998, p. 2).

Transnational Crime: An Historical Perspective

The prospective shape of transnational crime can be discerned in numerous crimes and smuggling networks in the premodern world. For example, from a historical perspective, many of the trade routes linking modern transnational criminal networks between countries were established centuries ago, long before national boundaries had been established. In fact, the classical overland trade route linking Byzantium (now Istanbul) to Rome through Greece and the Balkans into Western Europe is still used by modern drugs and weapons traffickers, and the so-called amber route, connecting the Black Sea to the Baltic, plays an integral role in smuggling and human traffic operations from China and other parts of Asia. Meanwhile, the water route across the Adriatic from Albania to Italy continues to bring various forms of contraband into Puglia in the south of Italy, and then north to the rest of Europe, and illegal immigrants and marijuana still follow ancient routes blazed during the Roman Empire into Europe from Africa through Morocco and Spain.

In similar fashion, ancient underground banking systems have operated next to legitimate banking systems for centuries. Different types of these systems have evolved in various parts of the world, including hawala (transfer) and hundi in South Asia and fei-ch’ien (flying money) in China (Passas, 1999). Initially conceived as noncriminal strategies to move money and goods quickly, they have been adapted by transnational criminals to bypass formal state banking systems and regulations, allowing them to move money without a paper trail. The best known of these, hawala, had its origins in early medieval commerce in the Near and Middle East, in an era marked by substantial long-distance trading, and played an essential security role during a time when brigands and pirates were on the prowl for merchants in transit by land or sea. This scheme protected merchants by allowing them to transfer funds based on trusted and Islamic propriety without the physical necessity of shepherding currency through foreign countries.

Sea piracy and the illicit trade in humans, usually in the form of slaves, are among the earliest examples of organized crime on a multinational or global scale; in fact, the slave trade has been described as the “world’s oldest trade” and can be traced back to the 3rd millennium; the trafficking of women, to at least the beginning of the Christian era (Chanda, 2007). Counterfeiting activities have been around as long as there has been a profit in it. In 17th-century England, the government selected Isaac Newton, “the smartest man in England,” as warden of the mint to avert what by the late 1690s had become a national crisis, because it became increasingly difficult to find “legal silver” in circulation (Levenson, 2009, p. 109). This grew into a major concern at the highest levels of power as the criminal underworld melted clipped silver into ingots to be sold on the continent, leading to an investigation by Parliament, which feared lacking sufficient funds to pay its soldiers on the battlefields of Europe. Newton’s solution was to reconfigure silver coins so that they would be much more difficult to clip, a process he was able to see through to completion by 1699.

Illicit arms, drugs, and human trafficking have received most of the focus of transnational crime studies over the past decade. More recently, Gastrow (1998) suggested that the smuggling of a herd of horses across the South African frontier to the German cavalry by a gang led by Australian immigrant Scotty Smith should be considered “one of the first transnational criminal operations in South Africa.” As early as the 17th century, French provocateurs were smuggling illicit weapons to various Native American tribes in the American colonies, as they contested the British for hegemony in the region. But examples can be found in many other fields as well. Not as well chronicled, recent research has focused on obscure topics such as smuggling binder wire into Canada from the United States in the early 20th century (Evans, 2011) and the trafficking of candelilla, a waxlike substance extracted from native Mexican plants used in the manufacture of cosmetics and other commodities. This practice flourished between the 1950s and 1980s, when the Mexican government strictly controlled its sale and production. A Texas entrepreneur stepped in and together with a host of candelilla makers, known as candeleros, created a “system of drop points and independent truckers” (Carey & Marak, 2011, p. 2) to smuggle the product across the border, much like drugs and humans are today. Ironically, it was not ended by law enforcement but by candeleros who discovered they could make even more money by selling their labor in the United States.

Piracy

No form of transnational crime illustrates the continuum of transnational crime past and present better than the ancient crime of piracy. In contrast to their precursors, modern pirates have taken advantage of high technology, bases in failed nation-states, potential alliances with transnational terrorists, and a global economy dependent on secure shipping lanes. Nonetheless, modern powers have proved no more able to fend off pirates, as demonstrated by the April 2009 standoff between an $800 million U.S. Navy destroyer and a handful of pirates in a lifeboat—the first incident in two centuries in which foreign pirates had captured a U.S. vessel for ransom (Gettleman, 2009; Mazzetti, 2009). The last time this took place was when the Barbary pirates of Northern Africa took sailors hostage in the early days of the American Republic.

Piracy was always a problem in the Mediterranean, becoming more endemic in the last century of the Roman Republic as a result of a miscalculation in foreign policy by the Roman senate in 2nd-century BCE. Formerly, the sea power of Rhodes had policed the Eastern Mediterranean until destroyed by the Romans. Rome, with no standing navy of her own to replace what it had destroyed, left the Mediterranean open to organized piracy. Pirates were headquartered in Cilicia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor, dominating the Mediterranean with great fleets. No direct action was taken against them until 102 BCE. According to one observer, the reason the Romans had not vigorously suppressed piracy was that pirates had become the chief source of slaves for the ruling classes (Lewis & Reinhold, 1966, p. 325). By 69 BCE, the seas were almost closed to travel and trade, and pirates were able to strike at will along the Italian coast and even make forays into the harbor of Rome at Ostia. Famine and financial disaster beckoned if the pirates were not vanquished. In 67 BCE, the Gabinian Law was passed, granting Pompey some of the most extraordinary powers ever granted to any Roman leader—almost unlimited powers over the entire Mediterranean for dealing with the pirate menace. Within 3 months, the pirate menace and freebooting ceased to plague the empire (Lewis & Reinhold, 1966, pp. 324–325).

So by the Middle Ages, piracy was already an ancient occupation. As trade increased over the centuries, so did the volume of piracy. With the expansion of oceanic trade routes during the commercial expansion of the 16th and 17th centuries, pirates likewise expanded their routes, following the money trail from the Old World to the Americas. As the French, English, Dutch, and Spanish each carved out empires in the New World, competition between these powers to establish trade monopolies often led to war on the high seas (Karraker, 1953). The traditional years of the Golden Age of Piracy lasted between 1650 and 1730. An evaluation of this era offers a number of striking parallels to 21st-century transnational criminal activities. Illegal pirates as well as state-sponsored ones, called privateers, had vast economic incentives to participate in the looting of cargoes of gold, grain, jewels, wine, and even drugs. The import and export of these commodities was heavily controlled, and for a successful smuggling network to flourish it required the willing participation of corrupt officials and merchants, particularly when it came to laundering their ill-gotten treasures.

According to early English common law, piracy committed by English subjects was likened to treason, the highest felony of this period. Statutes were introduced that added trading with known pirates or furnishing them weapons as forms of treason. According to William Blackstone (1771/1962), the crime of piracy, or trading with known pirates, was equivalent to “robbery and depredation upon the high seas” (p. 66). Sir Edward Coke regarded these actors as hostis humani generis, whereby “they renounced all the benefits of society and government” when it came to justice (Blackstone, 1962, p. 66).

Slavery

Numerous historical surveys of transnational crime include slavery as one of the earliest

examples of international criminality. Although slavery can indeed be traced to antiquity, it was not statutorily illegal throughout most of history and, hence, not a crime. Indeed, it was an accepted fact in ancient Greece and Rome that slavery was a natural state for some individuals, leading Aristotle to defend it, noting that “humanity is divided into two: the masters and the slaves” (Chanda, 2007, p. 215). It is anachronistic to speak of slavery as transnational crime before the 18th century. Much of the problem is the result of confusing human trafficking with the human chattel slavery that characterized the transatlantic slavery, a connection that researchers have concluded “is tenuous at best” (Andreas & Greenhill, 2010, p. 49).

By the 1400s, the slave trade had

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.

Do you need an answer to this or any other questions?