Chat with us, powered by LiveChat This is a research paper on the progression of hate crimes within the United States. Four variables are required which means tw - School Writers

This is a research paper on the progression of hate crimes within the United States. Four variables are required which means tw

 This is a research paper on the progression of hate crimes within the United States. Four variables are required which means two independents and two dependents (all has to be different). I would like for my first one to contain hate crime incidents vs. hate groups and the second one to be hate crime victims vs unemployment with the years ranking 2009-2019. I can give more details on my teacher’s instructions. 

Dakota Sanders

Bar Graph 1 represents the correlation between hate crime victims and hate groups. The total number of victims and hate groups are represented over a 10-period from 2009 to 2019 withing the United States. The categories included in the total number of victims consist of race/ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, and multiple-bias incidents. As for the hate groups, it included the groups such as the Neo-Nazi, Ku Klux Klan, Racist skinheads, Anti-LBGT, etc. The blue bars represent the hate crime victims, and the orange bars represents the hate groups.

Bar Graph 1

The graph shows that hate crime victims far out-weigh the number of hate groups in any given year. It may be fair to say that the number of hate groups remained fairly consistent within the 10 years. Whereas the number of hate crime victims steadily increased after 2015. Much of these occurrences are pre-pandemic, it will be interesting to see how these numbers change during and post pandemic. Some cases are more than likely the outcome of one’s own prejudice motive. Not all victims are the product of hate groups. Another point worth noting is that when hate groups strike, the number of victims can increase. When viewed in this way, the number of victims will, and often does, outnumber the number of actual hate groups. The ebb and flow of racial violence is affected by a number of factors that enable hate groups to commit acts of violence against people of different races.

Bar Graph 2 evaluates the hypothesis that higher crime incidents correlates to higher unemployment rates within the United States. The graph displays the incidences and unemployment over a 9-year period, between 2009 to 2019. The purpose of the graph is to determine if unemployment rates have any effect on the number of hate crime incidents within a specific time frame. The orange bars represent hate crime incidents, and the blue bars represent unemployment rates.

Bar Graph 2

In Bar Graph 2, unemployment rates surpassed hate crime occurrences from 2009 to 2012, with hate crimes remaining reasonably stable. Unemployment continues to decrease after this period, whilst the number of hate crime incidents begins to rise. Hate crime incidents have now exceeded the unemployment rate in 2017 to 2019.It is interesting that during periods of exceedingly high unemployment, that the occurrences of hate crimes were not nearly as high. It is reasonable to speculate that other unknown causes are contributing to the increase in hate crime incidents. As a result, it is fair to assume that unemployment rates are not a strong indicator or motivator of hate crime incidents.

Hate Crime Victims vs. Hate Groups

Hate Crime Victims 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 8336 8208 8208 7164 7242 6727 7173 7615 8828 8819 8812 Hate Groups 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 932 1002 1018 1007 939 784 892 917 954 1020 940

Hate Crime Incidents vs. Unemployment

Hate Crime Incidents 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 6604 6628 6222 5796 5928 5479 5850 6121 7175 7120 7314 Unemployment 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 14265 14825 13747 12506 11460 9617 8296 7751 6982 6314 6001

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Literature Review Instructions

What I envision for this assignment is a Five page paper that reviews the literature

regarding your topic. A literature review provides a summary for the reader of peer-

reviewed articles.

Things that you should be thinking about at this point are: What are the basic

findings of previous studies? What are some concepts or theories presented in the articles

that directly relate to my study? How will I tie the information in the articles to my study?

Organization

This section of the term paper is NOT meant to review all the information in prior

studies. It is just meant to review the information that pertains to your study-ie…your

variables. Whether that information is supportive of your hypothesis or not, you are testing

your hypothesis and ethically obligated to report all pertinent information. Make sure you

organize your literature review around the variables (Independents and Dependents) in the

study and not first article, second article, third article. Therefore, if my study is about

how poverty influences gang membership and how unemployment influences

property crime, I would have two sections. One of those sections would be labeled

Poverty and Gang Membership. I would list poverty first two remind myself that

poverty is the causal variable and make sure the information I was reviewing was

about the relationship were poverty causes individuals to join gangs. Second, I would

have a section labeled Unemployment and Property Crime. I would have a “tie-in”

section in between those sections about how they all “kinda” relate to each other (this

is the body of the study).

Content

Keep in mind that the best way to make an argument is to first introduce the

position of the article (make it a thesis statement), support it with a research finding,

explain the relationship between the variables in the research finding, and then tie it to your

paper. For example, each paragraph would look like

….According to Miller and Williams (2005) although poverty, in the general sense, does

not cause an individual to join a gang, being really poor does. Evidence for these claims is

supported by the fact that 75% of gang members only earned an average of 8,213 dollars the

year before joining the gang. The explanation for this is that joining a gang is not a whimsical

decision, and therefore, only the most desperately poor are willing to take all the risks that

gang membership brings. The current study (this is how you refer to your own study in a

research paper) specifically looks at data for communities below the poverty line, and Miller

and Williams (2005), use a similar data point for their analysis.

Although every article might not provide all of these points, look for them and get

the most out of the article. Also, if the article is lacking on a lot of this type of information,

then it is not a helpful source and you should move on.

Rules

This assignment is about working on your own writing. Therefore, you

should not be quoting. Quoting will result in heavy deductions in your grade,

especially if the five pages are really just a lot of quoting. Additionally, taking a sentence

and just changing a few words around is plagiarism and will also result in heavy penalties.

Work on summarizing information in your own words. If you have problems doing this, use

the zoom days, cell phone contact, or private zoom meetings to get advice.

Please Use either ASA, MLA, or APA citation style. I have included an ASA

citation style guide in an announcement on D2L. Use in-text citations and include a

reference page at the end of the review. If you have problems doing this, use the zoom

days, cell phone contact, or private zoom meetings to get advice. Make sure that you

download, and save, a PDF of the article and not merely use the

abstracts. Eventually I will ask you to produce the pdf’s, failure to do so will result

in heavy grade deductions.

Strategy

Read the last section of the article first. This section is typically called Discussion,

Conclusions, or Limitations. These sections typically provide the most direct information

about what the study is about. It is a quick way to “vet” studies. If the study looks good

after that, then start at the beginning. Pay special attention in the literature review and

analysis section of the article as that content is what you are writing about. Look at the

style of the writing for how to write literature reviews-it’s a technical style and you should

write yours in a technical way. You will notice that there are two basic ways to introduce an

article. People will introduce an article by saying….. According to Miller and Williams

(2005), x y and z or Miller and Williams (2005) contend….or argue….or find…..or state x y

and z. Pick up on some of those style points.

Submission

Please use 12pt font, times new roman style, double spaced. Please do not take

up space with things such as the date, the name of the class, etc. All I need is your name at

the top of the page. You can turn it in upload in D2L with the extension .doc (old MS Word

file) or .docx (new MS Word file). The assignment is due this Friday, April 9th at midnight

and will turn into a zero the following week.

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Methods Instructions

What I envision for this assignment is a Two Page paper that reviews your

methodology. A methods section provides a summary for the reader of the specifics

of the variables you are using.

First, you should have a section labeled Data Sources and you should use the

data source names to organize the section. Such as:

Data Sources

Bureau of Labor Statistics

This section should identify the different data sources you are using for your

study. Provide a brief description of the data source. This should be a summary

that is your own words. You should cite by providing an in-text (number) and a

corresponding (number) in the reference page with the link in the reference page

instead of a link in the text. This will help keep the paper clean. For example:

I use the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the variable X and the Bureau of Labor

Statistics is primarily an organization that provides data on X. Provide more

information about the data at the data source you are using…..

Then, when you are ready to cite, put a (1) at the end of the paragraph. That

number will correspond to the number in reference page as such :

Reference Page

(1) https://www.bls.gov/bls/escalation.htm

(2) ETC.

This keeps the paper clean and removes long web addresses from the text.

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU WRITE IN THE PRESENT TENSE-TAKE

OUT ALL I WILL OR I DID STATEMENTS IF YOU FIND THEM IN YOUR REVIEW

BEFORE YOU TURN IT IN. Instead, say things like…..In this study, I use….This study

uses independent variables X,Y,Z….ETC

Second, you should have a section labeled Operationalization and you should

use the variable names to organize the section. Such as:

Operationalization

Employment

This section should identify how the variable is measured. In this section you

must document, document, document! You need to provide the label for the

variable and specify which data source it comes from. You need to state the type of

statistic, years included, how the variable is defined, ETC. Any data transposing you

did need to be document and described.

Basically, a good way to think of this part of the paper is “If I were writing

instructions for someone to read about each variable and how I am using it, would

they be able to find the variable and use it in the same way by following my

description?” If they could, then you’re good! You should cite by providing an in-

text (number) and a corresponding (number) in the reference page with a link as

you did for the data source section.

Each variable needs its own paragraph/s with the variable name listed

before the description as I have done above. Write up the independent variables

first, then the dependent variable/s. Clarity and format are key for this section of

the paper.

Please use 12pt font, times new roman style, double spaced. Please do

not take up space with things such as the date, the name of the class, etc. All I need

is your name at the top of the page.

This assignment should be completed by this Friday, March 26th , by

midnight.

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Analysis

Instructions

What I envision for this assignment is a Two page paper that summarizes

the data in your analysis. An analysis section first provides a summary of data and

then interprets findings. Right now I am concerned with you summarizing your

data and presenting two visualizations. I present an example of a write up on the

following page.

Things that you should be thinking about at this point are: What

comparisons are meaningful? What is the best form of visualization? What are the

important points of interest? Ideally, you will have both the independent and

dependent variable in one visualization.

Please use 12pt font, times new roman style, double spaced. Please do

not take up space with things such as the date, the name of the class, etc. All I need

is your name at the top of the page. You can turn it in via a turnitin link that I will

post friday as a file with the extension .doc (old MS Word file) or .docx (new MS

Word file).

This assignment should be completed by Friday, February 26th , by

midnight.

Example of a Line Chart with one variable

Below in Line Chart 1, I present a comparison of three crimes. The

comparisons are of ?????????? Additionally, the trend is over the years ?????? Each

point, section, bar represents a rate/actual incident/etc-

This basically covers the intro to the chart-basically explain to the reader what they are looking at.

Chart XX

Then point out what is interesting

Above in Chart 1, analysis shows that of serious crimes, rape and assault

account for the majority of serious crimes. Murder and non-negligent manslaughter

are rare at…..(put in some specific numbers) MNM is very stable over the years at…..

(put in some specific numbers) Rape is up a little from X to Y. Assault dropped the

most of the three serious crimes from Z to P-but use really data points like from 85K

to 97K and so for and so on.

0

20000

40000

60000

80000

100000

120000

140000

160000

2011 2012 2013

assault

Forcible rape

Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter

Basically this is all “you” and what you think are interesting aspects of the

comparisons in the visualizations.

Example of a Bar Chart with an independent and Dependent variable The bar chart below evaluates the hypothesis that higher unemployment rates are correlated with higher murder rates. The rates are correlated by the 9 census defined regions and sub-regions. The blue bars represent murder rates and the red bars represent unemployment rates.

It appears from this bar charts that a correlation is a weak relationship

between unemployment rates and murder rates. Specifically, the data for E. North

Central sticks out in that………etc.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10

unemployment rates vs.murder rates

murder

unemployment

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