Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Write an 8-10 page paper on one of the topics listed below (topics may not be duplicated “ to be determined on a first come, fi - School Writers

Write an 8-10 page paper on one of the topics listed below (topics may not be duplicated “ to be determined on a first come, fi

Assignment: Write an 8-10 page paper on one of the topics listed below (topics may not be duplicated – to be determined on a first come, first served basis). General: Remember that the audience for this paper is a college educated biologist, so very simple terms need not be defined. However, proper use of citations is expected, please see below for instructions. I expect you to proof read your papers for any of spelling and grammar mistakes as I will take off points for this. If you feel that you need help writing, feel free to take advantage of the wonderful people at the TAMUCT writing center, be sure to make an appointment first and do not wait until the last minute! **Be assured that the university has a strict policy on plagiarism and cheating. I will uphold that policy and anyone caught conducting academic dishonesty will receive a zero – consider yourself warned!** Research: I expect that you will research your topic using the library, the internet, your textbook and, especially, professional journals. Use a variety of sources, not just the internet (I will take off points if more than 40% of your sources are from the internet). Be very careful when reading information that is not from a peer-reviewed source (i.e. not professional journals) because many groups/people tend to post information that serves their particular agenda and is not necessarily scientifically correct (I have seen several of these). I expect that if you use one of these sources, you will check the validity of their facts. Be sure to introduce and define your topic broadly first, then give more detail and examples to demonstrate your points. You should also end with a summary section that neatly ties the paper together. Tables, figures and pictures are to be on separate pages at the end of the paper (after references); they are not to be inserted in the pages of text. Text Format guidelines (I will be strict about this): Double spaced lines (except for literature cited, which should be single spaced) 1 inch margins (check this, most defaults are 1.5; you can change it in page setup) Times New Roman font, size 12 No space between paragraphs No page breaks between sections Citations: Please use the Council of Scientific Editors (CSE) ″Name, Year″ citation style for your writing: https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/documentation/doccse/nameyear/ (Links to an external site.) Other miscellaneous: The following hints will improve your writing: Avoid long run-on sentences. We are trying to write concisely and clearly. Don’t use twelve letter words when simpler ones will do just fine. Genus and species names in Latin are always italicized or underlined. Only the first letter of the genus is capitalized. Homo sapiens, Danaus plexippus, etc… Write numbers as numerals when they are associated with measurement units (2 km), spell them out only for numbers ˂ 10 (e.g. five hamsters; 20 geese). Always spell out a number if it is the first word of a sentence. DON′T use quotes. Follow the advice of Ralph Waldo Emerson, who said, ″I hate quotations. Tell me what you know.″ Instead, paraphrase the author and cite him/her. Quotes interrupt the flow of your text. Don′t use contractions in formal writing. Scientific writing is formal communication. Don′t use conversational language, colloquialisms or slang. Proofread, proofread, proofread! Some frequently misused/misspelled words (spell check will not catch most of these): affect/effect ″Effect″ is a noun (usually). ″Affect″ is always a verb. “The effect of their misuse will be that your grade will be affected by subtracting five points”. it’s/its ″It′s″ is the conjunction ″it is″. ″Its″ is the possessive form their/there/they’re I assume this is just carelessness, proofread your paper. between/among Between refers to two things, while among refers to more than two. fewer/less Use ″fewer″ if you can count the items, ″less″ if you can′t. (less water, but fewer boats) amount/number Use ′amount″ if you can′t count them, ″number″ if you can. (The amount of sand and the number of rocks) oftentimes Drop the ″times″; it′s redundant. different from / different than Different from is correct; different than is not. than/then “than” refers to a comparison – proofread your paper for mix-ups The word data is plural and the word datum singular 

Topic: Offspring Desertion and Infanticide Behavior

Thesis : Most acts of offspring desertion and infanticide are rooted in some form of survival.

I. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Michaels, L., (2017). Hierarchy of Dog Needs.

Hierarchy of Dog Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs has been widely accepted into the world of human

psychology. Interestingly enough the world of veterinary medicine have begun to implement

their own version titled ‘Hierarchy of Dog Needs’ to better understand the behaviors and

psychology of dogs. Understanding the motivations of why dogs behave the way they do

contributes to humans being able to better care for the as pets. This model explores the

importance to understand underlying elements for behavior for healthy coexistence for both

animal and human. Dr. Michaels identifies the necessity of understanding the basic needs in

animal nature so we may do better at meeting those needs. While also teaching us that aggressive

behaviors tend to stem from some basic needs being neglected or lacking for our animals.

A. Basic Needs

1. Physiological/Biological needs

a) Food, water, shelter, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion of wastes

2. Safety

a) Security of all things : self preservation, resources, health, territory

B. Psychological Needs

1. Love/Belonging

a) Social acceptance, positive contributions to the group

2. Esteem

a) Respect of others, hierarchy of power, dominance

C. Self-Fulfillment Needs

1. Self-Actualization

a) Morality, problem solving, creativity, acceptance of facts, lack of prejudice

II. Types of Infanticide

Palombit, R. A., (2015). Infanticide as Sexual Conflict: Coevolution of Male Strategies and

Female Counterstrategies. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4448612/

Palombit explores the adaptive and coevolutionary nature of infanticidal behaviors of

male species in response to sexual conflict. Palombit also explores how the females of the

species have evolved counter strategies in response to their male counterparts behaviors. This

article highlights the fitness benefits received or gained for the male perpetrators committing the

acts of infanticide. While also highlighting the expensive fitness costs being paid by the females

that are having the infanticidal acts committed against their young. This article uses comparative

data to understand why the practice of infanticide has proven to be beneficial for some species

taxa, but not all. Another informative point of analysis in this article details how the females have

adapted strategic responses to combat infanticide.

A. Males

1. Sexual conflict/dominance, fitness

a) Kill existing young to mate and reproduce their own offspring

2. Resource competition

a) Infant is source of nutrition

3. Sexual Frustration/ desperation

a) Sea otters

3. Surplus killing

a) For sport

B. Females (Natures version of abortion)

1. Environmental stressors : pathological response to abnormal stressors

a) Zoo/captivity

I. Zoo Elephants (may not recognize an infant, lack of social introduction to

change, lack of social needs being met for paternity, etc.)

II. Hamsters (solitary and nocturnal creatures)

2. Protecting young

I. Killing of older offspring to give their newest litter a chance to thrive

3. Lack of resources

4. Culling of young for resource competition purposes

I. Weak, deformed, small, sickly young

II. Snowy egrets (third egg sacrifice)

5. Self-preservation

I. Kangaroo/joeys

6. Emotional fulfillment

I. Chimp/ Gorillas steal another moms babies to “play” mom

II. Humans

1. Hormonal deficiency

2. Relational

3. Munchaunsen Syndrome

III. Types of Offspring Desertion (Natures version of adoption)

Pogany, A., Szentirmai, I., Komdeur, J., Szekely, T. (2008). Sexual Conflict and

Consistency of Offspring Desertion in Eurasian Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus.

Part of Springer Nature, BMC Ecology and Evolution.

This scientific article explores the numerous differences as it pertains to parental

investments between males and females. The biological differences between males and females

are shown to contribute to sexual conflicts and ultimately spills over into the parental provisions

for the young. This article highlights the fitness rewards associated with the abandonment of

offspring typically at the fitness cost of ones mate. This article examines why the absent parent

varies among populations, meaning it could be the male or the female that leaves leaving the

other to rear the young. It also explores the percentage of the young that are abandoned by both

parents and ultimately do not survive.

A. Parental Investment Theory (Robert Trivers)

1. Notes that males in many species do not need to invest as many resources in offspring

as females do and, as a consequence of this sex difference, natural selection should generate a

host of sex-differentiated adaptations and counter adaptations.

B. Operational sex ration

1. The ratio of sexually active males to sexually receptive females at any given time

2. Key behavioral difference in sexes

3. Natural response amplified by variation in the degree to a female and male provide

parental care for their offspring

I. Males

a). Many male animals do not participate in the rearing of their young

i) Bears, lions, sand goby, assassin bug

II. Females

a). Abandon at birth

i) Snakes, Panda bears and Merino sheep (twins)

b). Brood parasites

ii. Brown-headed cowbirds

,

Topic: Offspring Desertion and Infanticide Behavior

Thesis : Most acts of offspring desertion and infanticide are rooted in some form of survival.

I. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A. Basic Needs

1. Physiological/Biological needs a) Food, water, shelter, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion of wastes

2. Safety a) Security of all things : self preservation, resources, health, territory B. Psychological Needs 1. Love/Belonging a) Social acceptance, positive contributions to the group 2. Esteem a) Respect of others, hierarchy of power, dominance C. Self-Fulfillment Needs 1. Self-Actualization a) Morality, problem solving, creativity, acceptance of facts, lack of prejudice

II. Types of Infanticide A. Males

1. Sexual conflict/dominance, fitness a) Kill existing young to mate and reproduce their own offspring

2. Resource competition a) Infant is source of nutrition

3. Sexual Frustration/ desperation a) Sea otters

3. Surplus killing a) For sport

B. Females (Natures version of abortion) 1. Environmental stressors : pathological response to abnormal stressors a) Zoo/captivity I. Zoo Elephants (may not recognize an infant, lack of social introduction to change, lack of social needs being met for paternity, etc.) II. Hamsters (solitary and nocturnal creatures) 2. Protecting young I. Killing of older offspring to give their newest litter a chance to thrive 3. Lack of resources 4. Culling of young for resource competition purposes I. Weak, deformed, small, sickly young II. Snowy egrets (third egg sacrifice) 5. Self-preservation I. Kangaroo/joeys 6. Emotional fulfillment I. Chimp/ Gorillas steal another moms babies to “play” mom II. Humans 1. Hormonal deficiency 2. Relational 3. Munchaunsen Syndrome

III. Types of Offspring Desertion (Natures version of adoption) A. Parental Investment Theory (Robert Trivers) 1. Notes that males in many species do not need to invest as many resources in offspring as females do and, as a consequence of this sex difference, natural selection should generate a host of sex-differentiated adaptations and counter adaptations. B. Operational sex ration 1. The ratio of sexually active males to sexually receptive females at any given time 2. Key behavioral difference in sexes 3. Natural response amplified by variation in the degree to a female and male provide parental care for their offspring I. Males a). Many male animals do not participate in the rearing of their young i) Bears, lions, sand goby, assassin bug II. Females a). Abandon at birth i) Snakes, Panda bears and Merino sheep (twins) b). Brood parasites ii. Brown-headed cowbirds

,

TAMUCT SCIENCE TERM PAPER ASSESSMENT RUBRIC

Category Exceeds expectations Meets expectations Below expectations Does not meet expectations Score

Introduction

Thoroughly addresses the topic. Engages

reader. Logical progression from broad to

narrow topic. Clearly states main topic and

previews structure of paper.

The introduction states the main topic and

previews the structure of the paper.

The introduction states the main topic but

does not adequately preview the structure of

the paper.

There is no clear introduction or main topic

and the structure of the paper is missing. 10.0%

Thesis Statement

Clearly and consicely states the paper's

purpose in single sentence. Engaging and

thought provoking.

Clearly and consicely states the paper's

purpose in single sentence.

States the paper's purpose in a single

sentence. Incomplete statement or confusing.

5.0%

Body Each paragraph has thoughtful supporting

detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Each paragraph has sufficient supporting

detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Each paragraph lacks supporting detail

sentences.

Each paragraph fails to develop the main

idea. 35.0%

Organization/Structural

Development of Topic

Writer demonstrates logical and subtle

sequencing of ideas through well-developed

paragraphs; transitions are used to enhance

organization.

Paragraph development present but not

perfected.

Logical organization; organization of ideas not

fully developed. No evidence of structure or organization.

5.0%

Depth of discussion In-depth discussion & elaboration in all

sections of the paper.

In-depth discussion & elaboration in most

sections of the paper.

Omission of pertinent content or content

runs-on excessively. Quotations from others

outweigh the writer’s own ideas.

Cursory discussion in all the sections of the

paper or brief discussion in only a few

sections. 10.0%

Conclusion

The conclusion is engaging and restates the

thesis. Relates topic back to 'real world'

applications.

The conclusion restates the thesis. The conclusion does not adequately restate

the thesis. Incomplete statement or confusing.

10.0%

Spelling/Punctuation No errors in punctuation, capitalization and

spelling.

Almost no errors in punctuation,

capitalization

and spelling.

Many errors in punctuation, capitalization

and spelling.

Numerous and distracting errors in

punctuation,

capitalization and spelling. 2.5%

Grammar No errors sentence structure and word usage. Almost no errors in sentence structure and

word usage.

Many errors in sentence structure and word

usage.

Numerous and distracting errors in sentence

structure and word usage. 2.5%

In-text citations All facts are cited using primary literature or

peer sources. Correct format with no errors

Some facts are cited. Correct format, very few

errors.

Few facts are cited. Correct format, few

errors No in-text citations.

5.0%

Literature cited

Done in the correct format with no errors.

Includes more than 10 major references (e.g.

peer reviewed science journal articles, books,

and no more than professional two internet

sites. No encyclopedic type references).

Done in the correct format with few errors.

Includes more than 5 major references (e.g.

peer reviewed science journal articles, books,

and no more than professional two internet

sites. No encyclopedic type references).

Done in the correct format with some errors.

Includes more than 3 major references (e.g.

peer reviewed science journal articles, books,

and no more than professional two internet

sites. No encyclopedic type references).

Done in the correct format with many errors.

Includes more than 0-3 major references (e.g.

peer reviewed science journal articles, books,

and no more than professional two internet

sites. No encyclopedic type references). 5.0%

Figures and tables

Tables/figures numbered consecutively in

separate series. Title is complete enough to

be understood without referring to text.

Legend, headings, and units of measure are

included. Footnotes used as necessary to

provide clarity with respect to:Units of

measure that do not fit in the heading,

explanations of abbreviations and symbols,

statistical significance of entries.

Tables/figures numbered consecutively in

separate series Title is complete. Legend,

headings, and units of measure are included.

Footnotes used to provide clarity.

Tables/figures numbered, but not

sequentially. Title is incomplete. Legend,

headings, and units of measure are not fully

included. Footnotes used but do not provide

enough clarity

Tables/figures not numbered. No title.

Legend, headings, and units of measure are

not included. Footnotes are not used but are

needed.

10.0%

Total 100.0%

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