Chat with us, powered by LiveChat You are to choose one theme or concept from the weeks assigned materials (ATTACHED) which you think could be helpful to you in - School Writers

You are to choose one theme or concept from the weeks assigned materials (ATTACHED) which you think could be helpful to you in

You are to choose one theme or concept from the week’s assigned materials (ATTACHED) which you think could be helpful to you in your role as a teacher. In the equivalent of 2 double spaced, 12-pt. Times New Roman pages, explain why you chose this theme or concept, and elaborate on how you might utilize the theme or concept in your teaching. Identifying these “big ideas,” in addition to encouraging critical thinking and reading, will also help you engage in self-reflection prior to and during the formation of your Philosophy of Christian Education. To have effective “big ideas” you must read thorough through your chapter and be a good note taker.

                                       Choose one of the ATTACHED Readings:

Anthony/Benson, Chapter 2 (“Greek Education and Philosophical Thought”) and Chapter 3 (“Roman Education and Philosophical Thought”)

Chapter 3

ROMAN EDUCATION AND

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

TRADmoN TELLS us THAT RoME WAS founded in 753 B.C. on Palatine Hill, one

of the seven hills surrounding that particular geographic location, and al-

though the historical origins of the Italian people might be somewhat ob-

scure, it is generally understood that Roman influence in the centuries just

before the birth of Christ was dominant and well established. Unlike the

harsh lifestyle of the Spartans or the aristocratic Athenians, the Romans

were a relatively quiet people who preferred the simplistic agrarian lifestyle

of farming. Their emphasis was not so much on intellectual elitism or the

physical prowess of a military warrior as on character development and personal integrity. Energy was spent in the pursuit of honesty, courage, dig-

nity, and filial duty. 1

Many contemporary texts on the antecedents of Christian education omit a

discussion of Roman education as if to imply that little came out of this era

that contributed to the origins of Christian education. However, when one

considers the fact that God chose to send His Son into the world at a time

when the Roman system dominated the world in terms of its laws, commerce,

education, and social structure, one concludes that the Roman approach to

1. Dan K. Ball, The Evangelical Dictionary of Christian Education, ed. Michael J. Anthony (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001), s.v. "Roman Education."

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EXPLORING THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

government and religious orientation had a great deal of importance to God. In essence, the Roman form of education, society, and governance laid the foundation for the birth of Christianity. The impact of Rome upon the entire world was profound for more than a thousand years. Although the Romans were different from the ancient Greeks, we should highly regard and value them for their contributions to the origins of Christian education.

ROMAN CULTURE

The Romans were never seen as a particularly homogeneous people group. An Inda-European population provided the early origins of the Italian tribes. A second racial stock, the Etruscans, had entered Italy probably around 800 B.C. The Etruscans, presumably originating in Asia Minor, were viewed as a more advanced civilization than those who inhabited the land before them. In the seventh and sixth centuries, Greek settlements began to develop along the southern borders of Italy and Sicily. Jews, Egyptians, and Gauls from what is modern France, settled within their borders, providing them with a rich and varied cultural perspective. 2

Rome's influence soon grew far beyond the confines of its Italian penin- sula. Expansion brought it into contact with varied cultural traditions from far and wide, and with this awareness of new ways of living, change inevita- bly occurred throughout the land. The independent agrarian lifestyle that had held its grip on the people for so long gave way to a national state comprised of large landholdings owned by wealthy aristocrats. The manufac- turing and distribution of items such as tools, machinery, and furniture flour- ished. In addition to the influences and effects of commerce on the nation, the Roman army, with a host of international conquests, brought back to their homeland the riches and cultural practices of their despoiled adversar- ies. 3 This wealth challenged tradition and eventually led to a new, more cosmopolitan approach to life. For this reason, Horace, the great Roman poet, maintained that it was Greece that conquered Rome-culturally. 4

2. Frederick Eby and Charles F. Arrowood, The History and Philosophy of Educa- tion: Ancient and Medieval (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1940), 520.

3. Adrian M. Dupuis, Philosophy of Education in Historical Perspective ( Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966), 53.

4. Horace Epistle 1.156, as quoted in Dupuis, Philosophy of Education in Histori- cal Perspective, 53.

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Although Roman society as a whole was predominantly agrarian, that is

not to say that they were devoid of social classes. Definite class distinctions

were apparent throughout its history. For example, there were the aristocrats

with their emphasis upon land ownership and the enjoyment of artistic ex-

pression, the plebeians occupied what would now be referred to as a middle

class, and finally, slaves provided the foundation of its social stratification.

The Greeks provided the most profound impact upon Roman ways. How-

ever, in all fairness, we must say that "Rome was more by far than a transmit-

ter of Greek culture. She was a creator of culture. Her genius was practical,

not contemplative. She was a builder of material marvels, not philosophical

systems. She was realistic and pragmatic, not idealistic. In her way she gave

to future generations much that made them what they were and are."5

One of the most predominant cultural contributions of Roman life was its

political system. No other culture in the world had developed as elaborate a

means of governmental control and oversight of vast populations as the Romans.

When she boasted of an empire reaching the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Asia to the Firth of Forth in Great Britain, from the pillars of Hercules to beyond the Black Sea, and from the Rhine and the

Danube deep into the Sahara Desert, she could also boast of a gov- ernmental structure that staggers the imagination and a legal pattern that was just and humane. 6

The Roman system of providing citizenship to its people was remarkable.

It provided its citizens with national pride, guaranteed protection wherever they traveled, and gave them a valuable tool for negotiating with neighboring

countries. The apostle Paul benefited from his Roman citizenship by avoid-

ing a beating at the hands of the Roman centurion (Acts 22:24-29) and

when he demanded his right of legal appeal before Caesar (Acts 25:11).

The Romans were a pragmatic people by nature. What was valued was

what could be used to enhance their crop production or defend their state.

They were not obsessed with the condition of their physical bodies. As long

as they were healthy and could plant and harvest their crops, they were

5. S. E. Frost, Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Western Thought (Co- lumbus: Charles E. Merrill, 1966), 79.

6. Ibid.

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ExPLORING THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

content. Likewise, neither were they overly concerned about the arts. Al-

though they enjoyed music and art forms, they did not consume themselves

with the pursuit of such ambitions. The average Roman citizen had only

utilitarian concerns. Politics was of no consequence as long as he was free to

live his life without inordinate interference. He was, for all intents and pur-

poses, devoid of philosophical curiosity. 7 What mattered more than anything

else was an emphasis upon the family, particularly as it related to the educa-

tion of their children.

ROMAN EDUCATION

The history of Roman education can be divided into five broad catego-

ries, starting with the establishment of the city of Rome in 753 B.C. through

the closing of the pagan schools by Justinian in A.D. 529. A brief discussion

of each period's characteristics follows.

Home Instruction Period (753-272 B.c.)

Roman education was first and foremost dominated by the family, and in

the Roman family the father held the undisputed role of supreme authority.

The family was the unit of the Roman constitution, the custodian of ances-

tral tradition, and the focal point of religious and educational activities. By

Roman design, the father had absolute control over his wife, children, prop-

erty, and slaves. He determined the fate of all within his household. At the

birth of his child, he could choose to keep the baby or expose it in the

wilderness if it seemed unfit or was not the gender he preferred. He could

sell his children into slavery, and subject only to the customary obligation of

holding a family council, he could condemn his son to death if he so desired.

Whatever was owned by his son was, by law, also under the control of his

father for even a marriage contract did not prevent the father from usurping

control over his extended household. He was seen as the teacher, lawgiver,

and priest of the family. 8 He took each role seriously. The subsequent respect ( or fear) of the father's dominant role did not end

in the home. Within the greater community as a whole, the elder was treated

7. E. B. Castle, Ancient Education and Today (Bungay, U.K.: Richard Clay & Co., 1961), 108.

8. Ibid., 109.

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ROMAN EDUCATION AND PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

with the respect and honor that he had grown accustomed to expect. This fact may best be illustrated by drawing upon several scattered quotations and literary fragments that provide a picture of how senior citizens were treated in Roman society.

For instance, it was accepted as a natural token of respect to rise and offer one's seat at the arrival of an older person, generally, to yield place to him. Younger men regarded it as a privilege to escort elders to the Senate House, where they would wait at the doors and then accompany them home. At festival gatherings, preliminary inquiry was made as to who the guests were likely to be, in order that the younger might not take their places before their seniors; and there was reluctance to leave before the elders had arisen. If a party of three should be walking along the street, the oldest man would be given the middle place in the group, if it were two only, the younger man would take the outer, more exposed position. Children noticed these things, and put them into practice themselves. But the impor- tant point was that the elders merited these attentions not only in view of their position or experience, but by reason of their own conduct; serious in outlook, dignified in manner, and sensitive to any breach in decorum, they were conscious of the importance of their personal example. They benefited from a wider extension of parental respect, in that older citizens were regarded as the common parents of the community. 9

The parents were the first educators of their children. It was a pragmatic form of instruction that presumed that the son would follow in the footsteps of his father's trade and that the young girl would become a homemaker, much like her mother. The young girl learned to spin and weave because the mother was responsible for clothing her family. Because education was based on these expectations, little in the way of formal instruction was offered to the child in this early period of Roman education. From birth until the age of seven, the child remained at home under the care of the mother. At the age of seven, he was transitioned to the father, who began the process of educating him to become a citizen of Rome.

9. Stanley F. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome: From the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 6-7.

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EXPLORING THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION

The character of the young man was the focus of the father's instruction. Tremendous emphasis was placed upon the character development of the child at an early age, even before the more formal disciplines of reading, writing, and mathematics were introduced. After all, what value would there be if the child learned these subjects but was unable to use them honorably? "To the Roman father education was not a matter of instruction from books or of cultivating aesthetic appreciation in his children, but rather a means of inculcating an indelible reverence for a few definite moral qualities, and of imparting such practical skills as were essential to good farming and brave fighting." 10

Chief among the ideals taught by the Romans was virtus, which was de- fined as the ability to stand tall among one's peers as proud and unwavering, conscious of his virility, second to no one else in loyalty and strength of character. The second ideal was pietas, the realization that the Roman child lived in a world of unseen but powerful spirits. These spirits of his ancestors watched over him and demanded his allegiance and respect. Likewise, the gods were worthy of his unwavering devotion. Social mores hewn out of countless centuries of civic and spiritual living were not to be ignored but held in high honor and esteem. A Roman child that was worthy of his citi- zenship learned the value of both of these critical elements of his early child- hood education. 11

At the age of sixteen, the child participated in a rite of passage that transitioned him from boyhood to manhood. During this ritual, the indi- vidual took off his childish clothes, the toga praetext, and was presented with the toga virilis, clothing of a full-grown man. At this point in the young man's life, an older relative or dose friend of the family took on the respon- sibility of educating him. Those who were merchants or wealthy members of the middle class were able to provide their young men with an education that consisted of reading, writing, history, gymnastics, and the proper use of weapons. 12

An important event occurred during this period that had a significant impact on the education of Roman citizens. In 509 B.c., the Etruscan king- dom came to an end as the result of a revolt by the nobles and the patristic

10. Castle, Ancient Education and Today, 113. 11. Frost, Historical and Philosophical Foundations, 80. 12. James E. Reed and Ronnie Prevost, A History of Christian Education (Nash-

ville: Broadman & Holman, 1993), 36.

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families living in Rome. The Etruscans had given the Romans their alphabet, cultic worship, an enlarged vocabulary, and the beginnings of what would later be known as mechanical and structural engineering. After the departure of the Etruscans, a power struggle ensued between the ruling party-known as the patricians-and the commoners-known as the plebs. The latter group eventually won the rights of recognition and as a result published a code of laws called the Laws of the Twelve Tables. These laws formed the intellec- tual basis of Roman life and were memorized by both patrician and plebeian boys from early childhood. 13 The ensuing class struggle resulted in the re- structuring of the Roman government in 287 B.c.14

Transformation Period (272-132 B.c.)

With the military conquests of Rome expanding into other regions, the Roman form of education took on a decidedly different perspective. A deci- sive event occurred in 272 B.C. when Rome conquered the city of Tarentum. Many of the Hellenized captives were brought to Rome as slaves to serve in a variety of capacities. One such capacity was the role of hired tutor. As Rome began to assimilate the cultural distinctives of other countries, educa- tion began to take on a broader perspective.

Some of the educated slaves that had been brought to Rome from con- quered regions, referred to as litteratores, served a purpose similar to that of the Greek paidadogues. They provided more detailed instruction beyond that given by the boy's father. This practice eventually transitioned into the Roman elementary school for children six to twelve years old. At twelve, the boy progressed to secondary school, the curriculum of which consisted of history, geography, mythology, literature, and the study of the Greek and Latin languages.

One of the more notable litteratores of this period was a Greek captive named Livius Andronicus who, in 250 B.c., translated Homer's Odyssey into Latin. School during this period was usually held on a veranda. The teacher sat at a desk or wooden platform while the children sat on wooden benches. When the students wrote their lessons, they used wax tablets, a wooden stylus for writing, and some large scrolls. Discipline was harsh, and boys who

13. Eby and Arrowood, History and Philosophy of Education, 521. 14. Reed and Prevost, History of Christian Education, 37.

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misbehaved were the recipients of severe corporal punishment. 15 It is thought that this form of discipline was needed because the Roman boy would have had little respect for his slave or freedman teacher. As such, the litteratores would have been forced to maintain classroom management through the harshest of terms.

Imperial Period (132 B.C.-A.D. 100)

During these days, the Roman Empire expanded on all sides. During the second century B.C., Rome annexed Spain, Carthage, Illyria, and Greece. During the following century, she subjugated northern Africa, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Gaul to the Elbe and the Danube. Rome had become the mis- tress of the entire Mediterranean world. 16 Of all of the cultures that were assimilated, that of the Greeks was cherished most. Greek culture, which was considered to be several hundred years advanced beyond the Romans, was evidenced everywhere. Greek literature, art, and music were all but wor- shiped as being in form and structure superior to anything the Romans possessed. In essence, although Rome possessed the land of Greece, Roman military might never conquered the Greek mind.

By the beginning of the first century B.C., the Latin Odyssey had become the primary textbook in educational curriculum. This led to a desire for further studies in Greek literature. As a result, additional Greek materials were studied and became a staple in their entire school system. In the gram- mar schools, the course of instruction became purely literary and humanistic and was conducted in both Greek and Latin. Homer, Hesiod, and Menander were the favorite authors studied. Only later, after the full bloom of the Augustinian literature, did the Latin poets, especially Virgil and Horace, be- come of almost equal importance in the curricula. The instructional meth- odologies during this time included the teaching of language, grammar, meter, style, and subject matter. Literature was read aloud in class to refine their oratorical skills. 17

15. Luella Cole, A History of Education: Socrates to Montessori (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1962), 61-64.

16. Elwood P. Cubberly, The History of Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), 60.

17. W. Warde Fowler, Social Life at Rome: In the Age of Cicero (Norwood, Mass.: Norwood Press, 1909), 188.

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One dominant figure during this period was Marcus Tullius Cicero (106- 43 B.C.). His father was an influential city leader and could afford the finest education for his son. A studious young man, Cicero memorized the Twelve Tables and also the Latin translation of Odyssey at an early age. He also studied Greek and Latin literature, drama, and rhetoric. After having re- ceived the toga virilis, he studied law under Quintus Mucius Scaevola, one of Rome's leading legal experts. In addition, he developed a fascination for religion and philosophy. Armed with a keen mind and a well-rounded educa- tion, he set out to write a treatise about the grammar and rhetorical schools of Rome titled De oratore ("On the Education of an Orator"). 18 Viewed as the greatest Roman orator of his day, he espoused an education based on pragmatic ideals. He thought that an educated man must also be one who made a contribution to his community. The educated adult must be honest, public minded, devoted to public service, and pure in mind and heart. His actions and behaviors must be in keeping with the best interests of his coun- try. Steeped in tradition that values his ancestors, the educated adult would look for ways to pass on this heritage to future generations. 19

18. Reed and Prevost, History of Christian Education, 39. 19. Frost, Historical and Philosophical Foundations, 85.

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The Latin grammar school came into its own during this period. The teaching of medicine and law, the latter in regular schools, was established at Rome. Also during this period the greatest Roman treatises on architecture and oratory were produced. Schools were mostly private, financed by the parents of those who sent their children to them. However, during this period the publicly financed school system began. 21 In 38 B.c., Asinius Pollio established the first public library in Rome. 22 Obviously, during this time Jesus Christ was born, and the Christian church was established.

20. N. G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard, The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Ox- ford: Clarendon, 1969), 622-23.

21. Eby and Arrowood, History and Philosophy of Education, 516. 22. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome, 97.

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thifpofr1tin Roman~~Pcation,~lhisfoey, the .~chooJ$h~d served useful · . Beyo q~lement ····• secon Is

of inst . . .rewa .·· .· higher . n that htrefe. .. as college. The~e sch<;>olswer~fqesigned. to· Pf2pare students jQfhetoric a~.tl 0[1m.ry, which iry;.turn traineat~Crn for the great professions of law and public ~tnl~~;strationt1Jil;•~9'.fe. The ect de of the etoric of the ols, th

weret . ·. .•.· rneto , ii … ·.·•.··.. . . .• hasi.s !.l bJic spe~~i' debate. Ayoqng man who.aspired to enter into the legql or politidil professi ndatte esc t;leYvvere. .ed for tw years F , . > overt > sixtee. ly the hiiij!r:~;oiJ!iQf wealtlaJ,<'l'dttocrats ~~wh;tafford tlthe ol!ivjo?s instructiOrfi.n oration,>the schools also provideclinstruction in, mathematics, literature, linguistics, science, and philosophy. The famous

die Ag I dialect

A second figure of note during this period was Marcus Fahius Quintilian (A.D. 35-c. 90s). Born at Calagurris in Spain but reared in Rome from his youth, he was provided with a thorough education in Roman elementary, secondary, and rhetorical schools. He was trained in oratory by Palaemon and viewed Cicero as the man he most admired. In A.D. 88, he retired from te:,ching to devote himself to writing a book titled the Institutes of Oratory, a manual that described the training of young orators. To Quintilian, the orator was a most important personage in Roman life. An orator's responsibilities included giving eulogies of famous men, delivering motivational speeches to armies about to enter battle, discussing public matters, pleading legal cases before the judicial system, and performing other duties that required verbal eloquence. Beyond the emphasis upon training an orator, Quintilian's Institutes also discussed the educational system of Rome in general. He

23. Cubberlcy, History of Education, 69-70.

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believed that a child was better motivated by positive rewards than by harsh punishment. He was also a strong advocate of group learning as opposed to hiring private tutors. He looked down upon teachers who charged for their services but was not opposed to those who accepted payment as a gift rather than as a requirement for services rendered. To Quintilian, a thorough education included studies in history, literature, language, astronomy, philosophy, geometry, music, rhetoric, logic, law, and professional ethics.24

A robust education indeed!

Period of Continuance (A.D. 100-275)

Roman literature came into its own at this period. No longer was the emphasis upon Greek thought because the Roman scholars had now estab- lished their own literature base. Roman literature and schooling continued to play a large part in the structure of the nation.

The leading figure during this period was Mestrius Plutarch (A.D. 46-120 ). Having grown up in Chaerones, not far from Athens, he traveled throughout Greece, Egypt, and Italy lecturing on the topic of law. He often cited his father, Autobulus, and his grandfather, Larnprias, in his many writings. Dur- ing his lifetime, he wrote several hundred works that cover a broad range of topics. He often used the dialogue form in his writings as though the reader were sitting across a dinner table conversing with this great Roman educator. Interestingly, the last thirty years of his life he served as a priest at Delphi. Plutarch's contributions have been long lived. His works were popular dur- ing medieval times. Indeed, Shakespeare, Dryden, and Rousseau are among Plutarch's debtors. 25

Period of Decline (A.D. 275-529)

During this period, the Roman government began to issue …

,

Chapter 2

GREEK EDUCATION AND

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

No CULTURE HAS HAD so PROFOUND an impact upon the way we live today as that of the Greeks. The modern academic disciplines of education, art, sci- ence, medicine, and many other aspects of society can trace their roots to the Greeks. Our own educational system, aesthetic values as expressed within the fine arts, and of course, our quintessential philosophical presuppositions about life have Gre

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